The PARP (Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase) protein is a zinc-dependant nuclear enzyme whose main role is to detect and repair DNA single-strand breaks (SSB). However, PARP antibody research has revealed there are at least 17 PARP proteins, which also play a major role in apoptosis (programmed cell death) and post-translational modification. We at Novus Biologicals have an extensive range of PARP antibody products in our antibody catalogu.
PARP is activated in response to metabolic, radiation or chemically-induced DNA SSBs. Once a break is detected, the enzyme binds to the DNA and begins synthesis of a poly ADP-ribose chain, or PAR, utilizing NAD as a substrate. This is done in partnership with other repair proteins including DNA ligase III, DNA polymerase beta and the scaffolding protein XRCC1, resulting in a base excision repair. Once this is completed, PAR degradation takes place.
Recent PARP antibody studies have revealed PARP enzymes play an essential role in apoptosis, in a number of ways. Catalytic activity has been shown to be stimulated by the oligomerization of PARP2 with PARP1, which also plays a role in transcription by chromatin remodeling. Caspase 3 proteolytic cleavage of PARP is a key event in apoptosis.
Also, following DNA cleavage initiated by apoptotic enzymes, PARP can deplete cellular ATP to aid DNA repair; however, this also causes lysis and cell death. During DNA repair, overexpression of PARP can lead to cellular NAD-depletion, leading in turn to progressive ATP depletion, inhibition of glucose oxidation and necrotic cell death. PARP can also directly initiate apoptosis, and initiate expression of inflammatory proteins. Recently, the PARP antibody reagents in our antibody catalog have proven important to breast cancer research.
Novus Biologicals offers many PARP reagents for your research needs including:
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