Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFkB) is a protein complex that regulates DNA transcription and is a critical regulator of cell survival. NFkB has long been known as a primer of inflammation, however researchers are now finding that NFkB may also regulate over-inflammation via a novel mitophagy pathway (Minton, 2016).
RelA (also known as p65) is an NF-kB family member and a subunit of the NF-kB transcription factor complex. The mammalian NF-kB family has five members (NF-kB1, NF-kB2, RelA (p65), RelB, and c-Rel), each of which contains an N-terminal Rel homology domain. Active NF-kB protein complexes are dimeric (hetero- or homo-), and are made up of two family members. NF-kB signaling is activated in response to many different types of stimuli and modulates transcription of numerous downstream targets.
The inflammatory response consists of a complex network of signaling pathways that regulate a diverse set of cytokines, growth factors, adhesion molecules, and transcription factors (1). Of the proinflammatory signaling pathways the NF-kB family is particularly well studied for its role in apoptosis, cancer, and the development and maintenance of the immune system (1). The family consists of the transcription factors p50, p52, RelA (p65), RelB, and c-Rel.