Adenoviruses are DNA viruses generally widespread in nature that are frequently the cause of acute upper respiratory tract infections (i.e. common colds). Forty-seven known serotypes have been isolated since they were first discovered in 1953 with 3 types known to cause gastroenteritis. Several types have oncogenic potential though most cause self-limiting febrile illnesses characterised by inflammation of conjunctivae and the respiratory tract. The virus can be isolated from the majority of tonsils/adenoids surgically removed, indicating latent infections. It is not known how long the virus can persist in the body, or whether it is capable of reactivation after long periods. In patients experiencing immunosuppression (e.g. AIDS) it can be reactivated causing disease. The adenovirus early gene products E1A is a potent stimulator of cellular proliferation, which when overexpressed can overcome the growth inhibitory effects of TGF beta. The E1A region encodes a series of related proteins (35 - 46 kD) with multifunctional capabilities and forms a specific complex with the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene product. The E1a and E1B regions together comprise the transforming region of adenovirus. While expression of E1A alone is sufficient to immortalize primary cells, complete transformation requires the additional expression of the E1B region.
- Adeno-Associated Virus (AAV)
- Adeno-Associated Virus