CD98 - cell surface glycoprotein that promotes cell adhesion, growth, and survival

CD98 is a heterodimeric glycoprotein that contains an 80 kDa heavy chain and a 40 kDa light chain. The CD98 heavy chain is also known as the 4F2 antigen heavy chain or FRP-1, and it is encoded by the SLC3A2 gene. The CD98 heavy chain is capable of binding to β-integrins to mediate cell adhesion, motility, growth, and survival (1). Meanwhile, the CD98 light chain allows amino acid transport. Different isoforms of the light chain allow expression of six different L-amino acid transporters.


xCT: Friend or Foe?

There are two opposing sides to the controversial cysteine/glutamate antiporter. On one hand, it can be viewed a guardian of the cell, protecting it from the damaging oxidative stress that can cause cell death and even cancer. But, conversely, it has a dark side, actually facilitating cancer in a number of ways.

Glutathione and xCT: Chemoresistance in Tumor Cells

Glutathione, called GSH in its reduced form and GSSG or L(-)-Glutathione in its oxidized form, is an endogenous antioxidant found in most cells in the body.