Palmitoylation is a post-translational modification (PTM) in which fatty acids, such as palmitic acid, are attached to an amino acid. These fatty acids are generally attached to the amino acid cysteine, however, can also be attached to serine and threonine. Palmitoylation plays a role in a protein's association with the cellular membrane because it enhances its hydrophobicity. Palmitoylation is reversible and the reverse reaction is catalyzed by palmitoyl protein thioesterases.
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