Recombinant Human TLR4/MD-2 Complex Protein, CF


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Recombinant Human TLR4/MD-2 Complex Protein, CF Summary

Details of Functionality
Measured by its ability to inhibit LPS-induced TNF-alpha secretion by PMA-differentiated U937 human histiocytic lymphoma cells. 20 µg/mL of recombinant human TLR4/MD-2 will inhibit >60% of the TNF-alpha secretion induced by LPS.
Mouse myeloma cell line, NS0-derived human TLR4/MD2 Complex protein
Human TLR4
Accession # O00206
10-His tag
Human MD-2
Accession # Q9Y6Y9
10-His tag
N-terminus C-terminus
Accession #
N-terminal Sequence
Glu24 (TLR4) and Glu17 (MD-2)
Protein/Peptide Type
Recombinant Proteins
>95%, by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions and visualized by silver stain.
Endotoxin Note
<1.0 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.


Theoretical MW
70.6 kDa (TLR4), 19.2 kDa (MD-2).
Disclaimer note: The observed molecular weight of the protein may vary from the listed predicted molecular weight due to post translational modifications, post translation cleavages, relative charges, and other experimental factors.
95 kDa and 34 kDa, reducing conditions
Read Publications using
3146-TM/CF in the following applications:

Packaging, Storage & Formulations

Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS.
>95%, by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions and visualized by silver stain.
Reconstitution Instructions
Reconstitute at 100 μg/mL in sterile PBS.


This product is produced by and ships from R&D Systems, Inc., a Bio-Techne brand.

Alternate Names for Recombinant Human TLR4/MD-2 Complex Protein, CF

  • TLR4/MD2 Complex
  • TLR4/MD-2 Complex


TLR4 is a 100 kDa type I transmembrane glycoprotein that belongs to the mammalian Toll-Like Receptor family of pathogen pattern recognition molecules. MD‑2, also known as ESOP-1, is a 25 kDa secreted protein that is required for TLR4‑mediated responses to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (1 - 3). The human TLR4 cDNA encodes an 839 amino acid (aa) precursor that contains a 23 aa signal sequence, a 608 aa extracellular domain (ECD), a 21 aa transmembrane segment, and a 187 aa cytoplasmic domain. TLR4 contains 21 leucine rich repeats in its ECD and one cytoplasmic Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain (4). The ECD of human TLR4 shares approximately 25% aa sequence identity with other TLRs and 60% - 74% aa sequence identity with bovine, equine, feline, mouse, rat, and porcine TLR4. The human MD‑2 cDNA encodes a 160 aa precursor with an 18 aa signal sequence (5). Human MD‑2 shares 20% aa sequence identity with MD‑1 and 62% - 64% aa sequence identity with bovine, mouse, and rat MD‑2. MD‑2 associates with TLR4 on monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, and B cells (5 - 7). MD2 expression is required for cell surface localization of TLR4 and for optimal LPS‑induced TLR4 signaling (7, 8). MD‑2 also forms soluble disulfide-linked homo-oligomers which can interact with TLR4 (6). Through a domain separate from its TLR4-binding domain, MD‑2 extracts LPS from circulating CD14‑LPS complexes and carries the LPS into a ternary complex with TLR4 (9 - 11). The interaction of MD‑2/LPS with TLR4 induces receptor oligomerization and the triggering of an inflammatory response (12). Increased levels of plasma MD‑2 in septic shock patients sensitizes MD‑2 non-expressing epithelial cells to LPS and promotes widespread tissue inflammation (13).

  1. Gangloff, M. and N.J. Gay (2004) Trends Biochem. Sci. 29:294.
  2. Palsson-McDermott, E.M. and L.A. O’Neill (2004) Immunology 113:153.
  3. Miyake, K. (2004) Semin. Immunol. 16:11.
  4. Medzhitov, R. et al. (1997) Nature 388:394.
  5. Shimazu, R. et al. (1999) J. Exp. Med. 189:1777.
  6. Visintin, A. et al. (2001) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98:12156.
  7. Akashi, S. et al. (2000) J. Immunol. 164:3471.
  8. Nagai, Y. et al. (2002) Nat. Immunol. 3:667.
  9. Re, F. and J.L. Strominger (2003) J. Immunol. 171:5272.
  10. Kennedy, M.N. et al. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279:34698.
  11. Gioannini, T.L. et al. (2004) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101:4186.
  12. Saitoh, S. et al. (2004) J. Endotoxin Res. 10:257.
  13. Pugin, J. et al. (2004) Blood 104:4071.

Publications for TLR4/MD-2 Complex (3146-TM/CF)(14)

We have publications tested in 3 confirmed species: Human, Bacteria, N/A.

We have publications tested in 4 applications: Bioassay, SPR, Surface Plasmon Resonance, WB Ctrl.

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Showing Publications 1 - 10 of 14. Show All 14 Publications.
Publications using 3146-TM/CF Applications Species
T Vogl, A Stratis, V Wixler, T Völler, S Thurainaya, SK Jorch, S Zenker, A Dreiling, D Chakrabort, M Fröhling, P Paruzel, C Wehmeyer, S Hermann, O Papantonop, C Geyer, K Loser, M Schäfers, S Ludwig, M Stoll, T Leanderson, JL Schultze, S König, T Pap, J Roth Autoinhibitory regulation of S100A8/S100A9 alarmin activity locally restricts sterile inflammation J. Clin. Invest., 2018;0(0):. 2018 [PMID: 29611822] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
S Sun, M He, Y Wang, H Yang, Y Al-Abed Folic acid derived-P5779 mimetics regulate DAMP-mediated inflammation through disruption of HMGB1:TLR4:MD-2 axes PLoS ONE, 2018;13(2):e0193028. 2018 [PMID: 29447234] (Bioassay) Bioassay
J Honegr, R Dolezal, D Malinak, M Benkova, O Soukup, JSFD Almeida, TCC Franca, K Kuca, R Prymula Rational Design of a New Class of Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) Tryptamine Related Agonists by Means of the Structure- and Ligand-Based Virtual Screening for Vaccine Adjuvant Discovery Molecules, 2018;23(1):. 2018 [PMID: 29300367] (Bioassay) Bioassay
P Durai, HJ Shin, A Achek, HK Kwon, RG Govindaraj, S Panneersel, D Yesudhas, J Choi, KT No, S Choi Toll-like Receptor 2 Antagonists Identified through Virtual Screening and Experimental Validation FEBS J., 2017;0(0):. 2017 [PMID: 28570013] (SPR, N/A) SPR N/A
Westman J, Papareddy P, Dahlgren M, Chakrakodi B, Norrby-Teglund A, Smeds E, Linder A, Morgelin M, Johansson-Lindbom B, Egesten A, Herwald H Extracellular Histones Induce Chemokine Production in Whole Blood Ex Vivo and Leukocyte Recruitment In Vivo. PLoS Pathog, 2015;11(12):e1005319. 2015 [PMID: 26646682] (Surface Plasmon Resonance, N/A) Surface Plasmon Resonance N/A
Loyau J, Malinge P, Daubeuf B, Shang L, Elson G, Kosco-Vilbois M, Fischer N, Rousseau F Maximizing the potency of an anti-TLR4 monoclonal antibody by exploiting proximity to Fcgamma receptors. MAbs, 2014;6(6):1621-30. 2014 [PMID: 25484053] (Surface Plasmon Resonance, Human) Surface Plasmon Resonance Human
Jung I, Shin S, Lee M, Kang T, Han H, Lee S, Kim W, Kim H, Park W, Kim H, Yun C, Lee E, Wu T, Park Y Enhancement of tumor-specific T cell-mediated immunity in dendritic cell-based vaccines by Mycobacterium tuberculosis heat shock protein X. J Immunol, 2014;193(3):1233-45. 2014 [PMID: 24990079] (Bioassay, N/A) Bioassay N/A
Shang L, Daubeuf B, Triantafilou M, Olden R, Depis F, Raby A, Herren S, Dos Santos A, Malinge P, Dunn-Siegrist I, Benmkaddem S, Geinoz A, Magistrelli G, Rousseau F, Buatois V, Salgado-Pires S, Reith W, Monteiro R, Pugin J, Leger O, Ferlin W, Kosco-Vilbois M, Triantafilou K, Elson G Selective antibody intervention of Toll-like receptor 4 activation through Fc gamma receptor tethering. J Biol Chem, 2014;289(22):15309-18. 2014 [PMID: 24737331] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
Chen, Yu-Fon, Shiau, Ai-Li, Wang, Sheng-Hu, Yang, Jai-Sing, Chang, Sue-Joan, Wu, Chao-Lia, Wu, Tian-Shu Zhankuic acid A isolated from Taiwanofungus camphoratus is a novel selective TLR4/MD-2 antagonist with anti-inflammatory properties. J Immunol, 2014;192(6):2778-86. 2014 [PMID: 24532584]
Fetuin-A acts as an endogenous ligand of TLR4 to promote lipid-induced insulin resistance. Nat Med, 2012;18(0):1279. 2012 [PMID: 22842477] (Bioassay, Human) Bioassay Human
Show All 14 Publications.

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Gene Symbol TLR4