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Localization Pathway Bioinformatics

Subcellular localization refers to the various organelles within a cell, including the nucleus, mitochondrion, cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, Endoplasmic Reticulum, Golgi Apparatus, endosome, lysosome, peroxisome, vesicles, and more. Identifying the localization of proteins within these organelles may help researchers to determine proteins’ cellular function and protein-protein interactions. Using antibodies to visualize the cellular localization of proteins serves as a powerful research tool. Furthermore, characterizing novel proteins necessitates knowledge of that protein’s localization within the cell.

Top Research Reagents

We have 6625 products for the study of the Localization Pathway that can be applied to Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP), Flow Cytometry, Immunocytochemistry/ Immunofluorescence, Immunohistochemistry, Western Blot from our catalog of antibodies and ELISA kits.

NB100-524
Western Blot: NOD2 Antibody (2D9) [NB100-524] - HCMV infection induces NOD2 mRNA and protein in HFFs and U373 cells. E. U373 glioma cells were infected with HCMV Towne strain and levels of NOD1, NOD2 and GAPDH mRNAs were measured by qRT-PCR at indicated time points. F. HFFs were infected with HCMV (Towne) at MOI of 1 PFU/cell and levels of NOD2 protein and B-actin were determined 48 and 72 hpi. G. HFFs were infected with HCMV (Towne) strain at MOI of 0.03 or 3 PFU/cell and levels of NOD2 protein and B-actin were determined at 48 hpi. Quantitative data represent mean values (+/-SD) of triplicate determinations from three independent experiments (*p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001, one-way ANOVA test). Image collected and cropped by CiteAb from the following publication (//doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0092704.g001) licensed under a CC-BY license.Immunohistochemistry-Frozen: NOD2 Antibody (2D9) [NB100-524] - Overlay of NOD2-DyLight 488 (green) with phase contrast of murine colon.  Image from verified customer review.

Mouse Monoclonal
Species Human, Mouse
Applications WB, Flow, ICC/IF

     1 Review

26 Publications
NB200-103
Western Blot: p53 Antibody (PAb 240) [NB200-103] - Analysis of p53 in MCF7 and HeLa lystates. Image courtesy of anonymous customer product review.Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence: p53 Antibody (PAb 240) [NB200-103] - PC12 cells were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde for 10 minutes and permeabilized in 0.5% Triton X-100 in PBS for 5 minutes. The cells were incubated with anti-p53 Antibody (PAb 240) NB200-103 at 2 ug/ml overnight at 4C and detected with an anti-mouse Dylight 488 (Green) at a 1:1000 dilution for 60 minutes. Nuclei were counterstained with DAPI (Blue).  Cells were imaged using a 40X objective.

Mouse Monoclonal
Species Human, Mouse, Rat
Applications WB, ELISA, Flow

     3 Reviews

39 Publications
NBP1-86616
Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: CRAT Antibody [NBP1-86616] - Analysis in human testis and lymph node tissues.  Corresponding CRAT RNA-seq data are presented for the same tissues.Western Blot: CRAT Antibody [NBP1-86616] - Analysis using Anti-CRAT antibody NBP1-86616 (A) shows similar pattern to independent antibody NBP1-86615 (B).

Rabbit Polyclonal
Species Human
Applications WB, IHC, IHC-P

2 Publications
NBP1-91258
Western Blot: Fibronectin Antibody - BSA Free [NBP1-91258] - VSOP observed in perivascular-restricted spinal cord lesions with intact BBB. Immunostaining for laminin (brown) shows vascular endothelium and glia limitans of a perivascular lesion, along with infiltrating cells and VSOP (blue). Image collected and cropped by CiteAb from the following publication (http://asn.sagepub.com/lookup/doi/10.1042/AN20120081), licensed under a CC-BY license.Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence: Fibronectin Antibody - BSA Free [NBP1-91258] - NIH3T3 cells were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde for 10 minutes and permeabilized in 0.05% Triton X-100 in PBS for 5 minutes. The cells were incubated with anti- NBP1-91258 at 1 ug/ml overnight at 4C and detected with an anti-rabbit Dylight 488 (Green) at a 1:1000 dilution for 60 minutes. Nuclei were counterstained with DAPI (Blue).  Cells were imaged using a 100X objective and digitally deconvolved.

Rabbit Polyclonal
Species Human, Mouse, Rat
Applications WB, Simple Western, ICC/IF

     11 Reviews

52 Publications
NBP2-29463
Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: p21/CIP1/CDKN1A Antibody (WA-1) [NBP2-29463] - Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human bladder carcinoma stained with p21 Monoclonal Antibody (WA-1).

Mouse Monoclonal
Species Human, Mouse, Chimpanzee
Applications WB, Flow, ICC/IF

22 Publications
NB100-1533
Immunohistochemistry: POMC Antibody [NB100-1533] - Representative confocal images of POMC in POMC-transfected WT and Sel1L-/- N2a cells. White arrows point to POMC-containing secretory granules, while yellow arrows point to perinuclear POMC. KDEL marks the ER. Representative data from at least 2 independent experiments are shown. Image collected and cropped by CiteAb from the following publication (jci.org/articles/view/96420), licensed under a CC-BY license.Flow Cytometry: POMC Antibody [NB100-1533] - Flow cytometric analysis of paraformaldehyde fixed A431 cells (blue line), permeabilized with 0.5% Triton. Primary incubation 1hr (10 ug/mL) followed by Alexa Fluor 488 secondary antibody (1 ug/mL). IgG control: Unimmunized goat IgG (black line) followed by Alexa Fluor 488 secondary antibody.

Goat Polyclonal
Species Human, Mouse, Rat
Applications WB, Flow, ICC/IF

10 Publications
AF887
Western blot shows lysates of NIH‑3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line untreated (-) or treated (+) with 100 ng/mL Human PDGF (Catalog #<A class=NoLineLink href=Akt phosphorylated at S473 was detected in immersion fixed paraffin-embedded sections of human breast cancer tissue using Rabbit Anti-Human/Mouse/Rat Phospho-Akt (S473) Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF887) at 10 µg/mL overnight at 4 °C. Tissue was stained using the Anti-Rabbit HRP-DAB Cell & Tissue Staining Kit (brown; Catalog # <A class=NoLineLink href=

Rabbit Polyclonal
Species Human, Mouse, Rat
Applications WB, Simple Western, IHC

32 Publications
AF3398
Western blot shows lysates of Jurkat human acute T cell leukemia cell line, Raji human Burkitt's lymphoma cell line, HeLa human cervical epithelial carcinoma cell line, NIH‑3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line, A20 mouse B cell lymphoma cell line, and<br>Rat‑2 rat embryonic fibroblast cell line. PVDF membrane was probed with 0.5 µg/mL of Goat Anti-Human/Mouse/Rat Catalase Antigen Affinity‑purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF3398) followed by HRP-conjugated Anti‑Goat IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # <a class=Simple Western lane view shows lysates of Jurkat human acute T cell leukemia cell line and Raji human Burkitt's lymphoma cell line, loaded at 0.2 mg/mL. A specific band was detected for Catalase at approximately 62 kDa (as indicated) using 5 µg/mL of Goat Anti-Human/Mouse/Rat Catalase Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF3398) followed by 1:50 dilution of HRP-conjugated Anti-Goat IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # <a class=

Goat Polyclonal
Species Human, Mouse, Rat
Applications WB, Simple Western, ICC

     3 Reviews

6 Publications
MAB1230
Western blot shows lysates of HeLa human cervical epithelial carcinoma cell line, MCF‑7 human breast cancer cell line, U937 human histiocytic lymphoma cell line,<br>PC‑12 rat adrenal pheochromocytoma cell line, and NIH‑3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line. PVDF membrane was probed with 1 µg/mL of Mouse Anti-Human/Mouse/Rat ERK2 Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB1230) followed by HRP-conjugated Anti-Mouse IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # <a class=    ERK2  was detected in immersion fixed 3T3‑L1 mouse embryonic fibroblast  adipose-like cell line using Mouse Anti-Human/Mouse/Rat ERK2 Monoclonal  Antibody (Catalog # MAB1230) at 3 µg/mL for 3 hours at  room temperature. Cells were stained using the NorthernLights™  557-conjugated Anti-Mouse IgG Secondary Antibody (red; Catalog #  <a class=

Mouse Monoclonal
Species Human, Mouse, Rat
Applications WB, Simple Western, IHC

MAB1417
Insulin was detected in immersion fixed  beta TC‑6 mouse beta cell insulinoma cell line using Human/Mouse/Bovine Insulin Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB1417) at 10 µg/mL for 3 hours at room temperature. Cells were stained using the NorthernLights™ 557-conjugated Anti-Rat IgG Secondary Antibody (red; Catalog # <A class=NoLineLink href=Insulin was detected in immersion fixed paraffin-embedded sections of human pancreas using Rat Anti-Human/Mouse/Bovine Insulin Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB1417) at 0.5 µg/mL for 1 hour at room temperature followed by incubation with the Anti-Rat IgG VisUCyte™ HRP Polymer Antibody (<a class=

Rat Monoclonal
Species Human, Mouse, Bovine
Applications IHC, CyTOF-ready, ICC

16 Publications
AF231
    Western  blot shows lysates of HeLa human cervical epithelial carcinoma cell line and  MDA‑MB‑231 human breast cancer cell line. PVDF membrane  was probed with 1 µg/mL of Goat Anti-Human EGFR  Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF231) followed by  HRP-conjugated Anti-Goat IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # <a class=    A431  human epithelial carcinoma cell line was stained with Goat Anti-Human  EGFR Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog #  AF231, filled histogram) or isotype control antibody (Catalog # <a class=

Goat Polyclonal
Species Human
Applications WB, Simple Western, Flow

16 Publications
MAB1455
Western blot shows lysate of human liver tissue. PVDF membrane was probed with 1 µg/mL of Mouse Anti-Human Serum Albumin Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB1455) followed by HRP-conjugated Anti-Mouse IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # <a class=Albumin was detected in immersion fixed BG01V human embryonic stem cells differentiated to hepatocytes using Mouse Anti-Human Serum Albumin Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB1455) at 10 µg/mL for 3 hours at room temperature. Cells were stained using the NorthernLights™ 557-conjugated Anti-Mouse IgG Secondary Antibody (red; Catalog # <a class=

Mouse Monoclonal
Species Human
Applications WB, Simple Western, IHC

     3 Reviews

32 Publications
NBP2-37447
Western Blot: Somatostatin Antibody (7G5) [NBP2-37447] - Analysis using SST mAb against human SST recombinant protein. (Expected MW is 38.2 kDa)Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: Somatostatin Antibody (7G5) [NBP2-37447] - Analysis of lung cancer tissues using SST mouse mAb with DAB staining.

Mouse Monoclonal
Species Human
Applications WB, ELISA, Flow

     1 Review

2 Publications
7268-CT
Recombinant Human CTLA-4 Fc Chimera (Catalog # 7268-CT) inhibits IL-2 secretion by stimulated Jurkat human acute Tcell leukemia cells. The ED<sub>50</sub> for this effect is 0.03-0.15 μg/mL whenstimulated with 1 μg/mL Recombinant Human B7‑1/CD80 Fc Chimera (Catalog # <a class=


Species Human
Applications BA

3 Publications
DVE00
N/A VEGF [HRP]N/A VEGF [HRP]


Species Human
Applications ELISA

664 Publications
210-TA
Recombinant Human TNF-alpha (Catalog # 210-TA) has a molecular weight (MW) of 53.1 kDa as analyzed by SEC-MALS, suggesting that this protein is a homotrimer.  MW may differ from predicted MW due to post-translational modifications (PTMs) present (i.e. Glycosylation).Recombinant Human TNF-alpha  (Catalog # 210‑TA) induces cytotoxicity in the L-929 mouse fibroblast cell line in the presence of the metabolic inhibitor actinomycin D. The ED<sub>50</sub> for this effect is 25‑100 pg/mL.


Species Human
Applications BA

     3 Reviews

791 Publications
236-EG
Recombinant Human EGF (Catalog # 236‑EG) stimulates cell proliferation of the Balb/3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line. The ED<sub>50</sub> for this effect is 20‑100 pg/mL.1 µg/lane of Recombinant Human EGF was resolved with SDS-PAGE  and visualized by silver staining under reducing (R) conditions, showing a single band at 6 kDa.


Species Human
Applications BA

755 Publications
NB100-1519
Western Blot: Acetylcholinesterase/ACHE Antibody [NB100-1519] - Staining (0.3ug/ml) of Jurkat (A) and (0.5ug/ml) HepG2 (B) cell lysate (35ug protein in RIPA buffer). Detected by chemiluminescence.Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence: Acetylcholinesterase/ACHE Antibody [NB100-1519] - Immunofluorescence analysis of paraformaldehyde fixed U2OS cells, permeabilized with 0.15% Triton. Primary incubation 1hr (10ug/ml) followed by Alexa Fluor 488 secondary antibody (2ug/ml), showing nuclear, membrane and cytoplasmic staining. The nuclear stain is DAPI (blue). Negative control: Unimmunized goat IgG (10ug/ml) followed by Alexa Fluor 488 secondary antibody (2ug/ml).

Goat Polyclonal
Species Human, Mouse, Rat
Applications WB, Flow, ICC/IF

     1 Review

1 Publication
NBP2-58917
Western Blot: GLYAT Antibody [NBP2-58917] - Western blot analysis in human cell line RT-4, human cell line U-251 MG, human plasma and human liver tissue.Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: GLYAT Antibody [NBP2-58917] - Staining of human skeletal muscle.

Rabbit Polyclonal
Species Human
Applications WB, IHC, IHC-P

NBP2-79843
Western Blot: HLA DQ/DR/DP Antibody (HLA-Pan/2967R) - Azide and BSA Free [NBP2-79843] - Western Blot Analysis of Ramos cell lysate using HLA DQ/DR/DP Antibody (HLA-Pan/2967R).Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence: HLA DQ/DR/DP Antibody (HLA-Pan/2967R) - Azide and BSA Free [NBP2-79843] - Immunofluorescence staining of PFA-fixed Ramos cells. HLA DQ/DR/DP Recombinant Rabbit Monoclonal Antibody (HLA DQ/DR/DP/2967R) followed by goat anti-rabbit IgG-CF488 (green). Nuclei stained with RedDot.

Rabbit Monoclonal
Species Human
Applications WB, ELISA, Flow