Cell proliferation is defined as an increase in the number of cells due to cell growth and cell division. The rate of cell proliferation depends on the rate of cell division and the portion of cells within a given population undergoing such division, as well as the rate of cell loss due to apoptosis. The aforementioned rate of cell division is regulated by the cell cycle, which is divided into S phase, M phase, G1 phase, G2 phase and G0 phase (a non-dividing state). Abnormal cell proliferation, commonly referred to as neoplasia, is a necessary mechanism but may also lead to tumorigenesis. There is an important balance between cell proliferation and apoptosis for the development of normal tissues.
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