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Inflammation: Disease Bioinformatics

In the most general terms, inflammation is a biological response produced by the body’s immune system to protect itself from potentially harmful substances. There are two types of inflammation: acute inflammation and chronic inflammation. Acute inflammation is the rapid-onset type of inflammation that produces symptoms for only a few days. Chronic inflammation is a long-term type of inflammation that may be caused by the body’s failure to eliminate the cause of an acute inflammatory response or by an autoimmune response. On the cellular level, inflammation is mediated by a variety of cell types, including neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils, macrophages, monocytes, lymphocytes, fibroblasts and plasma cells. There is a complex series of proteins that mediate the inflammatory response. Cytokines are signaling proteins produced by various cells for use in cellular communication in order to regulate inflammation. Interleukin 1 (IL-1) and Interleukin 6 (IL-6) are released by macrophages and work with TNF-alpha to induce inflammation at the onset of infection. Interleukin 8 (IL-8) is a chemotactic factor that recruits neutrophils from the blood to sites of infection in order to initiate the inflammatory response. Chemokines, small proteins that are also involved in the inflammatory response, are a type of cytokine that attract leukocytes to infection sites by acting as chemoattractants. Chemokines interact with the targeted leukocyte via GPCRs. This interaction causes two effects: first, the leukocyte’s adhesive properties change allowing movement from blood to tissue and secondly, the leukocyte’s movement to the center of infection is driven via a chemokine gradient.

Inflammation Bioinformatics Tool

Laverne is a handy bioinformatics tool to help facilitate scientific exploration of related genes, diseases and pathways based on co-citations. Explore more on Inflammation below! For more information on how to use Laverne, please read the How to Guide.
Vizit™, under license from BioVista Inc.

Top Research Reagents

We have 3392 products for the study of Inflammation that can be applied to Western Blot, Chromatin Immunoprecipitation, Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence, Flow Cytometry, Immunohistochemistry, Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) from our catalog of antibodies and ELISA kits.

210-TA
Recombinant Human TNF-alpha  (Catalog # 210‑TA) induces cytotoxicity in the L-929 mouse fibroblast cell line in the presence of the metabolic inhibitor actinomycin D. The ED<sub>50</sub> for this effect is 25‑100 pg/mL.1 µg/lane of Recombinant Human TNF-alpha  was resolved by SDS-PAGE with silver staining, under reducing (R) conditions, showing a band at 17 kDa.


Species Human

     20 Reviews

516 Publications
204-IL
1 μg/lane of Recombinant Human IL-4 was resolved with SDS-PAGE under reducing (R) conditions and visualized by silver staining, showing a single band at 14 kDa.Recombinant Human IL-4 (Catalog # 204-IL) stimulates cell proliferation of the TF-1 human erythroleukemic cell line. The ED<SUB>50</SUB> for this effect is 0.05-02 ng/mL.


Species Human

     8 Reviews

286 Publications
AF5739
Western blot shows lysates of ME-180 human cervical epithelial carcinoma cell line, HT-2 mouse T cell line, and Rat-2 rat embryonic fibroblast cell line. PVDF membrane was probed with 0.5 µg/mL Goat Anti-Human/Mouse/Rat CSRP1 Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF5739) followed by HRP-conjugated Anti-Goat IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # <A class=NoLineLink href=

Goat Polyclonal
Species Human, Mouse, Rat
Applications WB

NBP2-34260
Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: Insulin Antibody (E2-E3 (same as INS04)) [NBP2-34260] - Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human pancreas stained with insulin Monoclonal Antibody (E2-E3)SDS-Page: Insulin Antibody (E2-E3 (same as INS04)) [NBP2-34260]

Mouse Monoclonal
Species Human, Mouse, Porcine
Applications WB, Flow, ICC/IF

     4 Reviews

NBP2-29323
Functional (Inhibition): NFkB p105/p50 Inhibitor Peptide Set [NBP2-29323] - TLR5/NF-kB/SEAPorter HEK 293 (NBP2-26277) cells were plated in 96-well plates at 5 x 10^4 cells/well for 16 h. Cells were preincubated with different concentrations (0, 1, 5, 10, 25 and 50 uM) of Inhibitory Peptide (NBP2-29323) and Control Peptide (NBP2-29334) for 1 h. Cells were then stimulated with 1 ng/ml Flagellin (NBP2-25289) for 24 h. Secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) was analyzed using SEAPorter Assay Kit (NBP2-25285). *p < 0.05 versus control peptide at the corresponding concentrations (Mann-Whitney U test).


Species Human, Mouse, Rat

10 Publications
201-LB
1 μg/lane of Recombinant Human IL-1 beta /IL-1F2 was resolved with SDS-PAGE under reducing (R) conditions and visualized by silver staining, showing a single band at 17 kDa.Recombinant Human IL-1 beta /IL-1F2 (Catalog # 201-LB) stimulates cell proliferation of the D10.G4.1 mouse helper T cell line. The ED<SUB>50</SUB> for this effect is <12 pg/mL.


Species Human

     7 Reviews

329 Publications
NB300-605
Western Blot: iNOS Antibody [NB300-605] - Analysis of iNOS was performed by loading 20ug of RAW264 whole cell lysate untreated (left lane) or stimulated with LPS at 1ug/mL for 16 hours (right lane) and 10ul of PageRuler Plus Prestained Protein Ladder onto a 4-20% Tris-Glycine polyacrylamide gel. Proteins were transferred to a nitrocellulose membrane and blocked with 5% Milk in TBST for at least 1 hour. The membrane was probed with an iNOS Rabbit polyclonal antibody at a dilution of 1:1000 overnight at 4C on a rocking platform, washed in TBST, and probed with a Goat anti-Rabbit IgG (H+L) Secondary Antibody, HRP conjugate at a dilution of 1:1000 for 1 hour. Chemiluminescent detection was performed using SuperSignal West Pico.Western Blot: iNOS Antibody [NB300-605] - iNOS in stimulated astrocytes. Image from verified customer review.

Rabbit Polyclonal
Species Human, Mouse, Rat
Applications WB, ICC/IF, IHC

     2 Reviews

28 Publications
NB100-689
Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: COX-2 Antibody [NB100-689] - Formalin fixed paraffin embedded colon carcinoma stained with COX-2 antibody.Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: COX-2 Antibody [NB100-689] - Formalin fixed paraffin embedded human colon carcinoma stained with COX2 antibody.

Rabbit Polyclonal
Species Human, Mouse, Rat
Applications WB, Simple Western, IHC

     1 Review

15 Publications
285-IF
1 μg/lane of Recombinant Human IFN-gamma  was resolved with SDS-PAGE under reducing (R) conditions and visualized by silver staining, showing a single band at 17 kDa.Recombinant Human IFN-gamma  (Catalog # 285‑IF) demonstrates anti-viral activity in HeLa human cervical epithelial carcinoma cells infected with encephalomyocarditis (EMC) virus. The ED<SUB>50</SUB> for this effect is 0.15‑0.75 ng/mL.


Species Human

     5 Reviews

260 Publications
AF3667
Western blot shows lysates of HL‑60 human acute promyelocytic leukemia cell line, human neutrophil cells, and mouse spleen tissue. PVDF membrane was probed with 0.5 µg/mL of Goat Anti-Human/Mouse Myeloperoxidase/MPO Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF3667) followed by HRP-conjugated Anti-Goat IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # <A class=NoLineLink href=Myeloperoxidase/MPO was detected in immersion fixed paraffin-embedded sections of human spleen using 3 µg/mL Goat Anti-Human/Mouse Myeloperoxidase/MPO Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF3667) overnight at 4 °C. Before incubation with the primary antibody tissue was subjected to heat-induced epitope retrieval using Antigen Retrieval Reagent-Basic (Catalog # <A class=

Goat Polyclonal
Species Human, Mouse
Applications WB, Simple Western, IHC

     1 Review

17 Publications
NB600-41532
Western Blot: Albumin Antibody [NB600-41532] - Analysis using the HRP conjugate of NB600-41532. Detection of Albumin in whole mouse liver extracts. Image courtesy of anonymous customer product review.

Goat Polyclonal
Species Mouse
Applications WB, ELISA, ICC/IF

38 Publications
NB100-56566
Western Blot: TLR4 Antibody (76B357.1) [NB100-56566] - Analysis using 2 ug/ml on (A) human intestine and 6 ug/ml on (B) mouse intestine and C) rat intestine lysate.Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: TLR4 Antibody (76B357.1) [NB100-56566] - Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human skin stained with at 5 ug/ml, peroxidase-conjugate and DAB chromogen. Staining of formalin-fixed tissues is enhanced by boiling tissue sections in 10 mM sodium citrate buffer, pH 6.0 for 10-20 min followed by cooling at RT for 20 min.

Mouse Monoclonal
Species Human, Mouse, Rat
Applications WB, ChIP, Flow

     5 Reviews

71 Publications
NBP1-19371
Western Blot: CD4 Antibody [NBP1-19371] - CD4 antibody was tested in the following cell lysates: Lane 1) human spleen 2) human tonsil 3) human placenta 4) human kidney 5) human liver 6) mouse spleen 7) mouse placenta 8) rat placenta.Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence: CD4 Antibody [NBP1-19371] - CD4 antibody was tested in Jurkat cells with Dylight 488 (green). Nuclei were counterstained with DAPI (blue).

Rabbit Polyclonal
Species Human, Mouse, Rat
Applications WB, Simple Western, ICC/IF

     7 Reviews

13 Publications