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Inflammation: Disease Bioinformatics

In the most general terms, inflammation is a biological response produced by the body’s immune system to protect itself from potentially harmful substances. There are two types of inflammation: acute inflammation and chronic inflammation. Acute inflammation is the rapid-onset type of inflammation that produces symptoms for only a few days. Chronic inflammation is a long-term type of inflammation that may be caused by the body’s failure to eliminate the cause of an acute inflammatory response or by an autoimmune response. On the cellular level, inflammation is mediated by a variety of cell types, including neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils, macrophages, monocytes, lymphocytes, fibroblasts and plasma cells. There is a complex series of proteins that mediate the inflammatory response. Cytokines are signaling proteins produced by various cells for use in cellular communication in order to regulate inflammation. Interleukin 1 (IL-1) and Interleukin 6 (IL-6) are released by macrophages and work with TNF-alpha to induce inflammation at the onset of infection. Interleukin 8 (IL-8) is a chemotactic factor that recruits neutrophils from the blood to sites of infection in order to initiate the inflammatory response. Chemokines, small proteins that are also involved in the inflammatory response, are a type of cytokine that attract leukocytes to infection sites by acting as chemoattractants. Chemokines interact with the targeted leukocyte via GPCRs. This interaction causes two effects: first, the leukocyte’s adhesive properties change allowing movement from blood to tissue and secondly, the leukocyte’s movement to the center of infection is driven via a chemokine gradient.

Inflammation Bioinformatics Tool

Laverne is a handy bioinformatics tool to help facilitate scientific exploration of related genes, diseases and pathways based on co-citations. Explore more on Inflammation below! For more information on how to use Laverne, please read the How to Guide.
Vizit™, under license from BioVista Inc.

Top Research Reagents

We have 4544 products for the study of Inflammation that can be applied to Chromatin Immunoprecipitation, Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP), Flow Cytometry, Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence, Immunohistochemistry, Western Blot from our catalog of antibodies and ELISA kits.

NB300-605
Western Blot: iNOS Antibody [NB300-605] - Analysis of iNOS was performed by loading 20 ug of RAW264 whole cell lysate untreated (left lane) or stimulated with LPS at 1 ug/mL for 16 hours (right lane) and 10 uL of PageRuler Plus Prestained Protein Ladder onto a 4-20% Tris-Glycine polyacrylamide gel. Proteins were transferred to a nitrocellulose membrane and blocked with 5% Milk in TBST for at least 1 hour. The membrane was probed with an iNOS Rabbit polyclonal antibody at a dilution of 1:1000 overnight at 4C on a rocking platform, washed in TBST, and probed with a Goat anti-Rabbit IgG (H+L) Secondary Antibody, HRP conjugate at a dilution of 1:1000 for 1 hour. Chemiluminescent detection was performed using SuperSignal West Pico.Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: iNOS Antibody [NB300-605] - Immunohistochemistry was performed on normal deparaffinized human Lung tissue.

Rabbit Polyclonal
Species Human, Mouse, Rat
Applications WB, Flow, IB

     3 Reviews

69 Publications
NB600-41532
Western Blot: Albumin Antibody [NB600-41532] - Analysis using the HRP conjugate of NB600-41532. Detection of Albumin in whole mouse liver extracts. WB image submitted by a verified customer review.Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence: Albumin Antibody [NB600-41532] - NLRP12 downregulates multiple JNK activating pathways in hepatocytes. For checking the purity of primary hepatocytes, hepatocytes isolated from healthy WT and Nlrp12-/- mouse livers were immunostained with antibody for hepatocyte-specific marker Albumin and counterstained with DAPI. Image collected and cropped by CiteAb from the following publication (https://elifesciences.org/articles/40396), licensed under a CC-BY licence.

Goat Polyclonal
Species Mouse
Applications WB, ELISA, ICC/IF

38 Publications
NB100-56583
Western Blot: NFkB p105/p50 Antibody (2J10D7) [NB100-56583] - Analysis of p50 in HeLa lysate in the A) absence and B) presence of immunizing peptide using p50 antibody at 5 ug/ml.Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: NFkB p105/p50 Antibody (2J10D7) [NB100-56583] - IHC-P of rabbit aorta using NB100-56583. Secondary antibody: anti-mouse histofine ( Nisherei Bioscience Inc. ref: 414131F). Development: DAB (Dako ref: K346811-2) and counterstained with Hematoxylin. Submitted via verified customer review

Mouse Monoclonal
Species Human, Rat, Rabbit
Applications WB, Flow, IHC

     1 Review

4 Publications
NB100-689
Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: COX-2 Antibody [NB100-689] - Formalin fixed paraffin embedded colon carcinoma stained with COX-2 antibody (NB100-689).Simple Western: COX-2 Antibody [NB100-689] - Simple Western lane view shows a specific band for COX2 in 1.0 mg/ml of Rat Brain at an antibody concentration of 1:100.  This experiment was performed under reducing conditions using the 12-230 kDa separation system.  Image provided through customer review.

Rabbit Polyclonal
Species Human, Rat
Applications WB, Simple Western, IHC

     1 Review

31 Publications
AF3667
Western blot shows lysates of HL‑60 human acute promyelocytic leukemia cell line, human neutrophil cells, and mouse spleen tissue. PVDF membrane was probed with 0.5 µg/mL of Goat Anti-Human/Mouse Myeloperoxidase/MPO Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF3667) followed by HRP-conjugated Anti-Goat IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # <A class=NoLineLink href=Simple Western lane view shows lysates of mouse spleen tissue, loaded at 0.2 mg/mL. A specific band was detected for Myeloperoxidase/MPO at approximately 67 kDa (as indicated) using 5 µg/mL of Goat Anti-Human/Mouse Myeloperoxidase/MPO Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF3667) followed by 1:50 dilution of HRP-conjugated Anti-Goat IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # <A class=NoLineLink href=

Goat Polyclonal
Species Human, Mouse
Applications WB, Simple Western, IHC

     6 Reviews

38 Publications
AF5739
Western blot shows lysates of ME-180 human cervical epithelial carcinoma cell line, HT-2 mouse T cell line, and Rat-2 rat embryonic fibroblast cell line. PVDF membrane was probed with 0.5 µg/mL Goat Anti-Human/Mouse/Rat CSRP1 Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF5739) followed by HRP-conjugated Anti-Goat IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # <A class=NoLineLink href=

Goat Polyclonal
Species Human, Mouse, Rat
Applications WB

6507-IL/CF
Measured in a cell proliferation assay using TF‑1 human erythroleukemic cells. The ED<sub>50</sub> for this effect is 0.05-0.2 ng/mL.


Species Human
Applications BA

3 Publications
DCRP00
 C-Reactive Protein/CRP [HRP] C-Reactive Protein/CRP [HRP]


Species Human
Applications ELISA

     4 Reviews

106 Publications
DCP00
 CCL2/JE/MCP-1 [HRP] CCL2/JE/MCP-1 [HRP]


Species Human
Applications ELISA

     7 Reviews

197 Publications
D6050
 IL-6 [HRP] IL-6 [HRP]


Species Human
Applications ELISA

     31 Reviews

550 Publications
285-IF
Recombinant Human IFN-gamma  (Catalog # 285‑IF) demonstrates anti-viral activity in HeLa human cervical epithelial carcinoma cells infected with encephalomyocarditis (EMC) virus. The activity is over 2-fold greater than the top competitor's IFN-gamma .1 μg/lane of Recombinant Human IFN-gamma  was resolved with SDS-PAGE under reducing (R) conditions and visualized by silver staining, showing a single band at 17 kDa.


Species Human
Applications BA

     21 Reviews

358 Publications
210-TA
1 µg/lane of Recombinant Human TNF-alpha  was resolved by SDS-PAGE with silver staining, under reducing (R) conditions, showing a band at 17 kDa.Recombinant Human TNF-alpha  (Catalog # 210‑TA) induces cytotoxicity in the L-929 mouse fibroblast cell line in the presence of the metabolic inhibitor actinomycin D. The ED<sub>50</sub> for this effect is 25‑100 pg/mL.


Species Human
Applications BA

     36 Reviews

677 Publications
201-LB/CF
1 μg/lane of Recombinant Human IL-1 beta /IL-1F2 was resolved with SDS-PAGE under reducing (R) conditions and visualized by silver staining, showing a single band at 17 kDa.Recombinant Human IL-1 beta /IL-1F2 (Catalog # 201-LB/CF) stimulates cell proliferation of the D10.G4.1 mouse helper T cell line. The ED<SUB>50</SUB> for this effect is <12 pg/mL.


Species Human
Applications BA

448 Publications
D8000C
 CXCL8/IL-8 [HRP] CXCL8/IL-8 [HRP]


Species Human
Applications ELISA

     8 Reviews

346 Publications
M1300CB
 IL-13 [HRP] IL-13 [HRP]


Species Mouse
Applications ELISA

     3 Reviews

117 Publications
DY417
 IL-10 [Biotin]


Species Mouse
Applications ELISA

     8 Reviews

221 Publications
NBP2-34260
Western Blot: Insulin Antibody (E2-E3 (same as INS04)) [NBP2-34260] - Probing of Western blots of pancreatic lysates from control and iron overloaded Tg40 PrP and PrP-/- mice with antibodies specific for insulin dimer and pentamer (upper and lower panels) shows decreased expression in Tg40 PrP relative to PrP-/- samples (lanes 1 & 5 vs. 3 & 7). Image collected and cropped by CiteAb from the following publication (nature.com/articles/s41598-018-24786-1), licensed under a CC-BY licence.Immunohistochemistry: Insulin Antibody (E2-E3 (same as INS04)) [NBP2-34260] - Immunohistochemistry of pancreas shows relatively higher reactivity for insulin in PrP-/- relative to Tg40 PrP sections (panels 1 & 3). Iron overloading decreases insulin reactivity in Tg40 PrP but not in PrP-/- samples (panels 1 vs. 2 & 3 vs. 4). Reaction for glucagon is higher in iron overloaded Tg40 PrP relative to control samples (panels 5 & 6). The difference is minimal in PrP-/- samples (panels 7 & 8). Image collected and cropped by CiteAb from the following publication (http://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-24786-1), licensed under a CC-BY licence.

Mouse Monoclonal
Species Human, Mouse, Porcine
Applications WB, ICC/IF, IHC

     5 Reviews

3 Publications
NBP1-19371
Immunohistochemistry: CD4 Antibody [NBP1-19371] - Increased CD3+ and CD4+ T-cell occurrence in the brainstem of SHR-72 transgenic rat model for tauopathies. (A-D) Immunofluorescence staining showed CD4+ T-cells in SHR-72 transgenic animals. (E- H) Immunofluorescence staining showed more perivascular than brain parenchyma infiltrating CD4+ T-cells in SHR-72 transgenic animals. PLoS One. 2019 May 23;14(5):e0217216. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0217216.Immunohistochemistry: CD4 Antibody [NBP1-19371] - DBZ inhibits the accumulation of CD4+ T cells and Th2 differentiation in the AAAs. (B) The representation of immunohistochemical staining for CD4+ in abdominal aorta from four groups (left). Bar graphs show the percentage of CD4+ positive cell areas (right; n=3 per group). Bar: 50 um.

Rabbit Polyclonal
Species Human, Mouse, Rat
Applications WB, Simple Western, Flow

     9 Reviews

34 Publications
NB100-56566
Dual RNAscope ISH-IHC: TLR4 Antibody (76B357.1) [NB100-56566] - FFPE tissue sections of human tonsil were probed for TLR4 mRNA (ACD RNAScope Probe, ACD catalog # 311281; Fast Red chromogen, ACD catalog # 322750). Adjacent tissue section was processed for immunohistochemistry using Mouse Monoclonal (Novus Biologicals catalog # NB100-56566) at 5ug/mL with 1 hour incubation at room temperature followed by incubation with anti-mouse IgG VisUCyte HRP Polymer Antibody (Catalog # VC001) and DAB chromogen (yellow-brown). Tissue was counterstained with hematoxylin (blue). Specific staining was localized to lymphocytes.Flow Cytometry: TLR4 Antibody (76B357.1) [NB100-56566] - Analysis using the Alexa Fluor (R) 647 conjugate of NBP2-27149. TLR4 expression on monocytes from human peripheral blood. PBMC were stained in a 2 color flow test, with CD14 PE version of this antibody and 1 ug of either isotype control (left) or TLR4-Alexa Fluor 647 (right). PPI negative, CD14+ cells were gated for analysis.

Mouse Monoclonal
Species Human, Mouse, Rat
Applications WB, ChIP, DB

     5 Reviews

111 Publications