Hypercholesterolemia (also known as high cholesterol) occurs when abnormally high levels of certain types of cholesterol are in the blood (>5.2 mmol/L). This increase of cholesterol can cause plaque buildup in the artery walls, inevitably causing damage to organs and tissues when blood flow is restricted. Borderline hypercholesterolemia is defined when levels are between 200-239 mg/dL. Hypercholesterolemia is significantly correlated with increased incidence and risk of atherosclerosis, heart attack, and stroke. Risk is increased with smoking, diabetes, high blood pressure, obesity, and poor exercise in combination with a poor diet. Nonfamilial hypercholesterolemia is the most common form as it is present in people with a susceptible genotype that is aggravated by excessive amounts of saturated fats and cholesterol. Familial hypercholesterolemia is a genetic disorder of of inherited low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, making prevalence within a family approximately 50%. Treatments focus on reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease by decreasing blood cholesterol levels. Medications may be diagnosed to help with this process. No treatment will lead to coronary heart disease (CHD).
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Hypercholesterolemia, Familial is also known as Familial Hypercholesterolemia, Familial Hypercholesterolemias, Familial Hypercholesterolemic Xanthomatosis, Familial Hyperlipoproteinemia Type Ii, Hyper Beta Lipoproteinemia.