Gamma H2AX (gammaH2AX) is the phosphorylated version of histone H2AX and is a marker for double-stranded breaks (DSBs) caused by DNA damage (1-4). H2AX is a variant of histone H2A, one of the histone core molecules forming the nucleosome, and is a vital component in repairing DNA damage (1-4). The H2AX variant represents between 2-25% of total H2A (1-3). Human H2AX protein is 143 amino acids in length and has a theoretical molecular weight of 15 kDa (5). As a result of DSBs, H2AX becomes phosphorylated at serine-139 and gamma H2AX is generated as a response to genomic instability (1-4). Gamma H2AX and its phosphorylation can be detected through western blotting and immunofluorescence, serving as a biomarker for DSB frequency (1-4). Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is considered a key protein for H2AX phosphorylation (1-4). Upon the phosphorylation and formation of gamma H2AX, many repair proteins become associated including breast cancer 1 protein (BRCA1), NBS1 (Nijmegen breakage syndrome 1)/hMRE11 (human meiotic recombination 11 protein)/ hRAD50 (N/M/R) repair complex, and 53BP1 (p53 binding protein 1) (1-4). Gamma H2AX detection assays are currently utilized for a variety of purposes, from studying DNA repair to drug development and radiation biodosimetry (4).
1. Palla, V. V., Karaolanis, G., Katafigiotis, I., Anastasiou, I., Patapis, P., Dimitroulis, D., & Perrea, D. (2017). gamma-H2AX: Can it be established as a classical cancer prognostic factor?. Tumour biology : the journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1177/1010428317695931
2. Kuo, L. J., & Yang, L. X. (2008). Gamma-H2AX - a novel biomarker for DNA double-strand breaks. In vivo (Athens, Greece).
3. Kinner, A., Wu, W., Staudt, C., & Iliakis, G. (2008). Gamma-H2AX in recognition and signaling of DNA double-strand breaks in the context of chromatin. Nucleic acids research. https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkn550
4. Redon, C. E., Weyemi, U., Parekh, P. R., Huang, D., Burrell, A. S., & Bonner, W. M. (2012). gamma-H2AX and other histone post-translational modifications in the clinic. Biochimica et biophysica acta. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbagrm.2012.02.021
5. H2AX: Uniprot (P16104)
|Product By Gene ID
- H2A histone family member X
- H2A histone family, member X
- H2AX histone
- Histone H2A.x
- Histone H2AX