Loading control antibodies are important in assessing that samples have been loaded equally across a gel. They also serve as internal positive controls in determining that all reagents are functioning properly and to assess transfer of the protein during blotting. Loading controls can be general cellular proteins or serve as more specific markers for subcellular fractions.
Loading Control Products
Beta-actin, COX IV, Profilin, Tubulin and VDAC1 antibodies are used routinely as loading controls in immunoassays. At Novus Biologicals, we have a vast catalog of antibodies covering the entire cellular protein spectrum.
We aim to keep abreast of the latest developments in immunochemistry and cytology to provide a full range of high quality antibodies at competitive prices, serving all your bioassay needs.
Beta-actin is one of six Actin isoforms and is highly involved in all cellular functions. Because it is widely distributed throughout all eukaryotic cells, beta-actin is commonly used as a loading control in protein assays like Western blotting. Beta-actin antibody agents are used to detect the relevant Beta-actin protein marker on assays, looking at beta-actin distribution and other aspects of cytoskeleton structure and function.
Every Beta-actin antibody we produce relates to either the entire protein or a particular residue. For example, the mouse monoclonal anti-beta-actin antibody (catalog number: NB600-501) recognizes the N-terminus of the beta isoform of actin.
GAPDH Antibody Products
GAPDH is one of the primary enzymes that plays a role in glycolysis. Recent studies show that GAPDH is involved in many other intracellular processes including DNA replication and repair. GAPDH antibody solutions are used to detect GAPDH concentrations in membrane fusion, phosphotransferase activity and DNA/RNA studies.
GAPDH is implicated in several pathological diseases, including various cancers and Alzheimer's diseases. Because GAPDH is expressed at high concentrations in all tissues, it is routinely used as a control in Western blotting. Other applications that GAPDH antibodies may be used in include immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry.
COX IV Antibody
The COX IV antibody is reactive with the COX IV protein, which is the terminal enzyme on the mitochondrial protein chain. It couples cytochrome C electron transfer to molecular oxygen, which is then reduced to water. This creates an electrochemical proton gradient across the mitochondrial membrane.
COX IV is expressed at a constantly high level; therefore, it makes an effective loading control in protein assays, with COX IV antibody as the detector. However, some caution is required as COX IV expression is very variable. In addition, the 16kD size in which the COX IV runs is shared by many other proteins. For this reason, COX IV antibody is often used with tagged COX IV. For example, mouse monoclonal anti-COX IV antibody (catalog number: H00001327-M08) is reactive against recombinant COX IV with a GST tag in ELISA and Western Blot analysis.
Profilin 1 Antibody
Profilin 1 antibody is used in the detection and analysis of the profilin 1 protein. Profilin is a small poly-L-proline binding protein, which is involved in Actin filament dynamics and signal transduction pathways in mammalian cells. Profilin has two isotypes which, although similar biochemically, have different mechanisms of action.
Profilin 2 is mainly expressed in brain tissue and, to a lower extent, skeletal muscle, whereas, Profilin 1 is expressed predominantly throughout the body except skeletal muscle and bone. This makes Profilin 1 antibodies a popular choice in stem cell marking assays.
Profilin 1 antibody is widely used for control loading during the assay of other proteins in Western blotting. The rabbit polyclonal anti-Profilin 1 antibody (catalog number: NBP1-19344) is also useful for immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded, formalin-fixed tissue sections.
Tubulin antibody assays detect Tubulin proteins in vitro. Tubulin is a popular marker in protein assays, as it is a major component of microtubules and is found in practically all eukaryotic cells.
Tubulin is a heterodimer, composed of alpha and beta tubulin. Tubulin antibodies are specific to either alpha or beta tubulin. Gamma tubulin is not found in microtubules, and is used in specific applications with gamma tubulin antibody.
At Novus Biologicals, we have a full range of antibodies for stem cell, marker, and cytoskeleton research. We aim to provide research faculties with the highest quality biological products at outstanding prices.