Antibody News

CCR2 or CD192

Monday, January 26, 2015 - 15:00

CCR2 is a receptor for several monocyte chemoattractant proteins (MCP1, MCP3, MCP4) that specifically govern monocyte chemotaxis. CCR2 transduces its downstream signals through increasing intracellular calcium ion levels. For example, MCP1 regulates the monocyte infiltration found in inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid or the cellular inflammatory response to tumors. CCR2 is also an alternative co-receptor with CD4 for HIV1 infection. CCR2 exists in two isoforms and has been found to be expressed in a wide variety of tissues - blood, brain, heart, kidney, liver, lung, ovary, pancreas, spinal cord, spleen, and thymus.

western blot CCR2 Antibody

Hart et al used the CCR2 antibody in their immunological...

NALP6 - plays a critical role in suppressing inflammation and tumorigenesis

Friday, January 23, 2015 - 14:45

NALP6 belongs to the NLRP family of which function as innate sensors of endogenous and exogenous stress and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). NLRPs are vital components of the inflammasome which is the cytoplasmic multiprotein complex that coordinates inflammation and cell homeostasis in various type of cells/tissues. NALP6 is one of the newest NLR protein family members and is highly expressed in intestinal epithelium and granulocytes, and to a relatively lower level in T-cells. NALP6 behaves as an arginine-vasopressin V2 receptor and has been suggested to contribute to AVP-mediated regulation of renal salt-water balance, glucose and lipid metabolism, apoptosis, and the cell cycle.

IHC-P NALP6 Antibody


Trex1 (3'-5' exonuclease TREX1, DNase III)

Thursday, January 22, 2015 - 12:14

This gene encodes the major 3' to 5' DNA exonuclease in human cells. The protein is a non-processive exonuclease that appears to provide proofreading for checkpoint signaling after DNA damage in response to oxidative stress and apoptosis. It is ubiquitously expressed. Trex1 binds to single-stranded DNA coated with replication protein A found at sites of DNA damage, and recruits the ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3 related protein (ATR) checkpoint kinase. This gene uses two different open reading frames. The upstream ORF encodes proteins which interact with ATR and localize to the intranuclear foci induced by DNA damage. The downstream ORF encodes proteins with 3' to 5' exonuclease activity and may be a subunit of human DNA polymerase III.


PPAR gamma - An important target in human metabolism

Monday, January 19, 2015 - 15:02

Peroxisome proliferators are non-genotoxic carcinogens which are purported to exert their effect on cells by interacting with members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily known as peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs). There are four of these nuclear hormone receptors known to date, and they are ligand-dependent intracellular proteins that stimulate downstream gene transcription of genes such as acyl coenzyme A oxidase and cytochrome P450 (CYP450). Activation occurs through direct binding to specific DNA response elements following activation by an appropriate ligand. PPARs have pleiotropic effects upon a wide range of cellular functions including vascular tone, inflammation and energy homeostasis. Because of this, PPARs are important targets to consider in therapies for hypertension, obesity, and metabolic syndromes.


Albumin - a family of globular protein

Friday, January 16, 2015 - 09:56

Albumin is a soluble and globular monomeric protein encoded by chromosome 4 that comprises about half of the protein found in blood serum. It functions as a carrier protein for steroids, fatty acids, and thyroid hormones as well as stabilizing extracellular fluid volume. Gene mutations result in various anomalous proteins. Albumin is synthesized in the liver as a preproalbumin with an N-terminal peptide that is removed before the nascent protein is released from the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This product, known as proalbumin, is in turn cleaved in the Golgi to generate the final, secreted albumin form. A paper monitoring the regulation of brain amyloid-beta levels by insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1) was published in Nature Medicine with the usage of the albumin antibody (1).


SHARP1 - An enhancer-of-split- and hairy-related protein

Wednesday, January 14, 2015 - 15:23

SHARP1 encodes a transcription repressor factor that belongs to the Hairy/Enhancer of the Split subfamily of basic helix-loop-helix factors (bHLH). Sequence alignment shows that SHARP1 is only distantly related to these proteins with a 37-42% sequence identity within its bHLH domain. Unlike most other bHLH proteins, SHARP-1 is not expressed in neuronal progenitor cells or early differentiating neurons but is instead restricted to neuronal subset within the postnatal central nervous system (CNS). SHARP1 appears to play a regulatory role in the clockwork system integrating with Clock and Bmal1. Mutations in this gene (designated hDEC2-P385R) are associated with short sleep phenotypes in both humans and mice, resulting in elevated levels of vigilance time and concomitant decreases in sleep time.

IHC SHARP1 antibody


BrDU (Bromodeoxyuridine)

Wednesday, January 14, 2015 - 12:02

The thymidine synthetic nucleoside analogue bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) has a long, colorful history of repeated use in molecular and cytokinetic studies, as detailed in reviews by Vanderlaan and Dolbeare (1,2).  Because BrDU is only incorporated into newly synthesized DNA in actively replicating S-phase cells, it allows for accurate and comprehensive quantitation of the pattern, rate, and progression of cell proliferation. Data such as DNA-synthesis kinetics, cell fraction in S-phase, and the construction of dynamic proliferation profiles (with variables such as S-phase transit rate and potential doubling time) via bivariate BrdU/DNA flow cytometry analyses and/or microscopy can also be collected. Cells may be labeled in vitro or in vivo with this analogue, and is extremely valuable in detecting proliferation in tissues not easily accessible to other assay types (ie the brain).


CD73 (Cluster of differentiation 73, ecto-5'-nucleotidase)

Wednesday, January 14, 2015 - 09:47

CD73 is a 70kD glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored cell surface molecule that belongs to the 5'-nucleosidase family. It hydrolyzes extracellular nucleotides into membrane permeable nucleosides and is found as both a membrane-bound and soluble molecule. Because it is abundantly expressed on vascular endothelium and some lymphocyte subpopulations, CD73 is a useful lymphocyte differentiation marker. Like many other GPI-anchored molecules, it transmits T-cell activation signals upon ligand engagement. CD73 functions as a co-stimulatory molecule in human T-cells for both proliferation and activation, and also appears to modulate lymphocyte adhesion. Furthermore, the ecto-5'-nucleotidase activity itself is an important mediator of anti-inflammation because it converts extracellular AMP into adenosine which is a potent anti-inflammatory trigger. 


CD33 (Cluster of differentiation 33, sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 3 (Siglec3))

Friday, January 9, 2015 - 09:19

CD33 is a transmembrane protein that belongs to the sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin (siglec) family. These are immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM)-containing molecules capable of recruiting the tyrosine phosphatases SHP-1 and SHP-2 to signal assemblies. ITIMs are also used for the ubiquitin-mediated removal of the receptor from cell surfaces. CD33 is expressed on cells of myelomonocytic lineage. It binds sialic acid residues of N- and O-glycans on cell surfaces, and is a therapeutic target for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The Siglec family plays a key role in immmunoregulation to minimize undesired tissue damage due to excessive immune and inflammatory responses.


CD90 (Cluster of differentiation 90)

Thursday, January 8, 2015 - 09:02

CD90 is a 25-35kD glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked glycoprotein receptor of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily. It is found on murine T-cells, thymocytes, neuronal cells, granulocytic lineage-derived cells, hematopoietic stem cells, fibroblasts, neurons, and Kupffer's cells. CD90 is often used as a marker for a variety of stem cells and mature neuronal axon processes.  CD90 appears to play a role in cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions and adhesion during synaptogenesis, nerve regeneration, apoptosis and necrosis, inflammation, fibrosis, and metastasis.

CD90 flow cytometry

Flow cytometry studies with the CD90 antibody were used by Mayani et al to phenotype cord blood cells (1). Those researchers correlated CD90 expression to the highest levels of proliferative potential...

Glucose Transporter 4 (GLUT4, SLC2A4)

Wednesday, January 7, 2015 - 08:38

GLUT4 is an insulin-sensitive glucose transporter that facilitates insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and cardiac tissues that specifically express this protein. It is a twelve transmembrane domain multi-pass protein found only in the endosome system and perinuclear cytoplasm. Upon insulin stimulation, GLUT4 translocates to the cell surface. Because of its role in glucose homeostasis, GLUT4 is the key regulator of obesity and obesity-related disease.  The reduction of GLUT4 gene expression is directly related to insulin resistance development and Type 2 diabetes.

Glut4 IHC

A recent detailed review from Govers describes interesting aspects of the intracellular regulation of GLUT4 in adipocytes; regulation is dominated by localization,...

CD16 - Find me on macrophages, neutrophils and NK cells

Monday, January 5, 2015 - 13:34

CD16 is a lymphocyte Fc gamma type III low-affinity receptor for IgG and is represented by two similar genes, CD16A (Fc gamma RIII A) and CD16B (Fc gamma RIIIB). CD16A exists as a heterooligomeric polypeptide-anchored form in macrophages and NK cells. CD16B exists as a monomeric glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored form in neutrophils. CD16 binds IgG in the form of immune complexes or free antibody. It exhibits preferential binding to IgG1 and IgG3 isotypes, with minimal binding of IgG2 and IgG4. Upon IgG binding, both CD16 isoforms initiate signaling cascades that produce a diverse variety of responses including antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), phagocytosis, degranulation, and proliferation. CD16 is expressed on macrophages, natural killer (NK) cells and neutrophils. Their expression is constitutive, although cytokines and lymphokines can modulate their expression levels.


PINK1: All work and no fun

Thursday, January 1, 2015 - 13:46

The protein PINK1 is a mitochondrial-located serine/threonine kinase (PTK) that maintains organelle function and integrity. It not only protects organelles from cellular stress, but it also uses the selective auto-phagocytosis process for cleaning and clearing cell damage. Exner et al initially reported that, in humans, a PINK1 deficiency is linked to autosomal recessive incidences of both neurodegenerative pathology and Parkinson's Disease (PD) (1). That group employed an RNA interference-mediated downregulation of the PINK1 gene, and assessed the resulting PINK1 levels with the PINK1 antibody, allowing them to establish that their mitochondrial defect knockdown could be rescued by overexpression the parkin protein - a component of the ubiquitin-ligase complex that has also been heavily connected to occurrences of familial PD.


Troponin I Type 1 - Find me in your slow-twitch skeletal muscles

Wednesday, December 31, 2014 - 14:39

Troponin I is part of a heteromeric thin filament regulatory complex that is responsible for modulating skeletal and cardiac muscle contraction. Troponin complex consists of three subunits: troponin I (TnI), troponin T (TnT), and troponin C (TnC). Each of these subunits has a different role in the function of the complex. In particular, TnI is the inhibitory component, and confers calcium-sensitivity to the ATPase activity of the myofibril contractile apparatus within striated muscles. By blocking actin-myosin interactions, it regulates muscle relaxation. TnI is encoded by three different genes to produce isoforms that are preferentially expressed as follows: TnI Type 1 (skeletal-slow-twitch), TnI Type 2 (skeletal-fast-twitch), and TnI Type 3 (cardiac). As their names imply, TnI Types 1 and 2 are only expressed in either fast-twitch or slow-twitch skeletal muscle fibers, respectively.


Troponin I Type 2 - I stay with fast-twitch skeletal muscles only

Monday, December 29, 2014 - 14:28

The protein Troponin I is a component of the heteromeric protein complex responsible for regulating both skeletal and cardiac muscle contraction. Troponin complex is made up of three parts: troponin I (TnI), troponin T (TnT), and troponin C (TnC). Each of these proteins has a particular function. TnI is the inhibitory component that confers calcium-sensitivity to the ATPase activity of the myofibril contractile apparatus. By interfering with actin-myosin interactions, TnI regulates muscle relaxation. TnI exists in three tissue-specific isoforms: TnI Type 1 (skeletal-slow-twitch), TnI Type 2 (skeletal-fast-twitch), and TnI Type 3 (cardiac). As their designations suggest, the TnI Types 1 and 2 are expressed only in fast- or slow-twitch skeletal muscle fibers, respectively, while TnI Type 3 is found expressed in cardiac muscle...

Troponin I Type 3 (TnI, cardiac)

Wednesday, December 24, 2014 - 09:59

Troponin I is part of a heteromeric thin filament regulatory complex that governs skeletal and cardiac muscle contraction. Troponin I is composed of three subunits: troponin I (TnI), troponin T (TnT), and troponin C (TnC), and each of these components plays a different functional role. For example, TnI is an inhibitory component, and confers calcium-sensitivity to the ATPase activity of the myofibril contractile apparatus within striated muscles. Through blocking actin-myosin interactions, TnI modulates muscle relaxation. TnI itself is actually encoded by three different genes which produce tissue-specific isoforms as follows: TnI Type 1 (skeletal-slow-twitch), TnI Type 2 (skeletal-fast-twitch), and TnI Type 3 (cardiac). As their nomenclature implies, TnI Types 1 and 2 are expressed solely in fast- or slow-twitch...

Do you see what I see? I c-Kit

Tuesday, December 23, 2014 - 11:28

The c-Kit (CD117) proto-oncogene is a 145 kD receptor tyrosine kinase family closely related to platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR). It is a transmembrane receptor and the cellular homolog of the HZ4-feline sarcoma virus transforming gene (v-Kit). c-Kit is expressed on hematopoietic stem cells (multipotent hematopoietic stem cells, myeloid and/or erythroid lineage progenitors, and T-and B- cell precursors), mast cells, and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. c-Kit regulates a variety of biological responses such as chemotaxis, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and adhesion. Mutations in c-Kit have been implicated in tumor growth and progression in various cancers. In mice, because c-Kit is identical to the W locus protein, it is integral to mast cell development and hematopoiesis. The c-Kit receptor (KL) ligand has been identified and is encoded by the murine steel (SI) locus.

Studies with the...

CD86 - I work in tandem with CD80

Monday, December 22, 2014 - 14:59

CD86 belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily of proteins that drive innate and adaptive immune responses. It is an 80kD co-stimulatory molecule for the priming and activation of naive and memory T-cells, respectively. CD86 is expressed on activated B- and T- cells, monocytes/macrophages, dendritic cells, and astrocytes. Engagement of CD28 with B7-1 and B7-2 ligands on antigen-presenting cells (APCs) stimulates T-cell activation and triggering of key pro-inflammatory cytokine responses through NF-kB, while subsequent engagement of CTLA-4 (also known as CD152) with these same ligands results in response attenuation. CD86 has also been shown to be involved in immunoglobulin class-switching and triggering of NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity.

With their central function in immune...

CD80: A co-stimulator of T cell activation

Friday, December 19, 2014 - 12:55

CD80 is a 60kD single chain type I transmembrane glycoprotein that is a member of the immunoglobulin family. CD80 is expressed on activated B- and T-lymphocytes, as well as a subpopulation of previously activated B-cells, but not on the majority of resting B-cells in peripheral blood. It is also found constitutively expressed on dendritic cells and macrophages.  CD80 and CD86 are both ligands for two structurally similar molecules expressed on T-lymphocytes - CD28 and CTLA4/CD152. Binding to these molecules is a potent co-stimulatory CD3 complex-dependent signal for T-lymphocyte activation, cytokinse production, and T-cell tolerance establishment. The roles of co-stimulatory (CD28) and co-inhibitory (CTLA4) molecules in T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling are nicely published by Chen in a Nature Reviews in Immunology1....

Collagen I: Tissue origin detection has begun

Thursday, December 18, 2014 - 14:47

The extracellular matrix (ECM) is the external framework found between individual cells that comprise higher order structures like tissues and organs. The ECM composition of vertebrates is dominated by a class of molecules known as collagens - each with unique features suited for a particular function and location. Collagen proteins are made up of three subunit polypeptides that vary in length. Through a unique repeated (Gly-X-Y) sequence, these components associate to form a structurally regular triple helix. Collagen type I is one of the most common collagen forms and is found in a wide variety of areas including skin, tendon, vascular ligature, organs, and bone. Because of collagen I’s basic and fundamental role in guiding ECM architecture, its identification and detection is useful in the classification and verification of tissue-specific origins, and sample tissue typing.


B-cell activating factor (B7H4, B7S1, immune co-stimulatory protein B7-H4)

Wednesday, December 17, 2014 - 14:30

B7H4 is a co-stimulatory protein though to function as a negative regulator of T-cell mediated immunity by blocking proliferation, cell cycle progression and interleukin-2 (IL-2) production. Because B7H4-deficient mice are only minimally affected, it appears that B7H4 is involved in fine tuning of the T-cell mediated immune response. B7H4 is expressed on activated T-cells, B-cells, monocytes, and dendritic cells and exists in three different isoforms. Its aberrant expression has been associated with a variety of cancers such as lung, breast, and ovary, and it may hold promise as a prognostic marker for renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Sarafian et al examine the expression profile of human blood group antigenic determinants such as B7H4 in normal human tissues1.

More immunology profiling studies from another...

CD68 (Cluster of differentiation 68, GP110, LAMP4, SCARD1)

Monday, December 15, 2014 - 14:29

CD68 belongs to a growing family of hematopoietic mucin-like molecules known as lysosomal/endosomal-associated membrane glycoproteins (LAMPs). Other LAMP family members included leukosialin, stem cell antigen CD34, and GlyCAM-1. CD68 encodes a 110-kD transmembrane glycoprotein with high levels of expression in human monocytes and tissue macrophages. CD68 binds lectins through a heavily glycosylated extracellular domain. It has also been found to be a member of the scavenger receptor family, whose main purpose is to clear cell debris, regulate phagocytosis, and recruit macrophages. CD68 transcripts are absent or present at very low levels in many hematopoietic lines, but can be induced by exposure to phorbol myristic acid (PMA/TPA).

Horny et al employed the CD68 antibody to distinguish between normal and neoplastic human monocytes, mast cells, and macrophages1. Their findings provide valuable diagnostic...

PCNA (Proliferating cell nuclear antigen, polymerase delta auxiliary protein)

Friday, December 12, 2014 - 14:19

PCNA is a nuclear protein essential for DNA replication as well as DNA excision and mismatch repair pathways. It coordinates the recruitment and association of needed components during both of these processes, both of which are essential for cell cycle regulation and cell response to stress.  Through the symmetric association of three identical monomers, PCNA forms a toroidal, ring-shaped structure that encircles DNA. This serves as the scaffold upon which polymerases and other proteins dock and associate.  It has been demonstrated that PCNA binds directly to downstream signaling molecules such as CDK inhibitor p21, endonucleases Fen1 and XPG, and DNA cytosine 5-methyltransferase (MCMT).


FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3/FLK2)

Thursday, December 11, 2014 - 14:31

FLT3 is a Type III tyrosine kinase cell surface receptor found on primitive bone marrow stem cells. The FLT3 ligand is a hematopoietic growth factor that stimulates cells via a set of structurally related tyrosine kinase receptors.  This FLT3 Ligand promotes the differentiation of multiple hematopoietic cell lineages and is expressed as a non-covalently-linked dimer by T-cells, bone marrow, and thymic fibroblasts. Downstream events in the FLT3 pathway include the expansion of monocytes and immature dendritic cells, B-cell differentiation, natural killer (NK) cell development, and myeloid differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells.

Because FLT3 overexpression and mutations are highly associated with...

L-selectin (CD62L antigen, Leukocyte surface antigen Leu-8)

Wednesday, December 10, 2014 - 14:33

L-selectin is a member of the selectin family of glycoprotein adhesion and homing receptors that recognize sialyated carbohydrate groups and regulate lymphocyte-endothelial cell interactions. It is a type I transmembrane cell adhesion molecule (CAM) and is constitutively expressed on all classes of circulating leukocytes including lymphocytes (excluding memory T-cells), monocytes, and polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells. L-selectin is also expressed on bone marrow myeloid progenitor cells, erythroid precursor cells, and some thymocytes. Knockout mice studies implicate L-selectin in health and disease conditions – leukocyte recruitment to lymph nodes, acute and chronic inflammation, etc.  

A detailed overview of the L-selectin signaling cascade (including currently...


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