Antibody News

Inhibitor kappa B-alpha (IkappaB-alpha)

Monday, March 30, 2015 - 14:46

The transcription factor nuclear factor kappa beta (NFkB) is highly regulated by triggers such as stress, free-radicals, UV light, and hypoxia. NFkB is one of the fastest responding transcription factors in humans. The NFKB signaling pathway is essential for cancer progression because it governs many downstream molecules that control cellular growth and development. The effects of NFkB on angiogenic pathways and cell response mechanisms to stress and damage are well established in the literature. NFkB is normally silenced in the cytoplasm by association with its inhibitory protein IkB. Ligands such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) or other cytokines trigger phosphorylation of IkB by the IkB kinase (IKK) complex. This phosphorylation triggers IkB degradation, resulting in the release of the NF-kB dimers which are then free to translocate into the nucleus and activate downstream target genes. IkB alpha is one of six members of the IkB family.

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Dnmt1 - A ubiquitous DNA methyltransferase

Friday, March 27, 2015 - 14:30

The Dnmt1 enzyme is a member of the C5-methyltransferase family responsible for repairing cytosines in double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). This enzyme uses a nucleophilic attack mechanism and is the most abundantly found mammalian DNA methyltransferase. It primarily acts upon CpG residues and prefers hemimethylated residues, but can also methylating unmethylated DNA. The cell relies upon Dnmt1 as its key methylation maintenance enzyme both for DNA replication and repair as well as for de novo methylation during somatic cell development and differentiation. In cell division, it is required for epigenetic inheritance because it complexes with S-phase DNA replication sites to faithfully maintain the original methylation pattern into the newly made strand. To maintain the DNA methylated state of the DNA independently of replication, Dnmt1 also regularly cycles through states of complex formation and localization. It has the following expression pattern: associated with chromatin...

D4-GDI (GDP dissociation inhibitor, RhoGD12)

Thursday, March 26, 2015 - 15:05

The D4-GDI protein is a negative regulator of the Ras-related Rho family of small molecule "molecular switch" GTPases. The Rho GTPases modify cell structure and architecture via rapid changes to the actin cytoskeleton and cell membrane. Many of these physiological processes are associated with apoptotic cell death, thus the in vivo removal of D4-GDI inhibitory block is critical for proper induction and progression of apoptosis in cells. This removal of D4-GDI is effected by the caspase-3 protease, which cleaves the full length 28kD mature D4-GDI form into smaller 23kD and 5kD fragments. The 23kD fragment then translocates to the nucleus. Creighton University researchers used the D4-GDI antibody in their studies on human estrogen receptor-alpha (hER-alpha66) signaling in breast cancer models (1). They undertook this work in hopes of understanding estrogen and antiestrogen signaling...

Cytochrome C - a mediator of apoptosis

Wednesday, March 25, 2015 - 15:05

Cytochrome C is a small heme protein within the inner mitochondrial membrane responsible for carrying electrons within the respiratory transport chain.  Additionally, cytochrome c has also been identified as a player in programmed cell death (apoptosis). During the early phases of apoptotic death reactions, cytochrome c translocates from the mitochondria membrane into the cytoplasm and serves to trigger the apoptotic proteolytic cascade by activating caspase 3, through association with protease activating factor-1 (Apaf-1). Apoptotic programmed death also involves the catalysis of lipid peroxidation in the mitochondria when cytochrome c is bound to acidic lipids such as cardiolipin.

Cytochrome C western blot

Western Blot: Cytochrome C Antibody (7H8...

CCR1 (C-C chemokine receptor type 1)

Monday, March 23, 2015 - 14:33

Chemokines play a central role in inflammation and are crucial for recruitment of immune cells to sites of infection. The chemokine-dependent activation of leukocytes occurs through binding to G-protein coupled receptors. These chemokine receptor subtypes can be divided into two major groups, CXCR and CCR. CCR1 in particular is a receptor for the leukocyte chemoattractant and hemopoiesis regulator macrophage-inflammatory protein (MIP-1), eotaxin, RANTES, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1), and other related beta chemokines. CCR1 regulates both stem cell proliferation and systemic inflammatory responses. Knockout mice lacking CCR1 have severe defects in neutrophil trafficking and proliferation. Within tissues, CCR1 is widely expressed, particularly in hematopoietic cells (neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, and eosinophils), blood, vessels, and bone...

Caspase 8 - a key mediator of apoptosis

Friday, March 20, 2015 - 14:29

Programmed cell death via apoptosis is a key controlled physiological process instigated by the cell death receptor family, their ligands, and the caspase cysteine protease family. All caspases exist in a precursor form that contains a prodomain, and large and small catalytic subunits. A cleavage event adjacent to an aspartate liberates one large and one small subunit, which are now free to associate into an active a2b2 tetramer. Caspases are activated by triggers such as ligand-receptor interactions, growth factor deprivation, and cell function inhibitors. Caspase 8 is the directly connection between CD95 activation and the caspase network, and caspase 8 overexpression causes apoptosis.

Caspase 8 antibody

Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: Caspase 8 Antibody [NBP1-05123] - Formalin-fixed,...

FIH-1/HIF-1AN - a transcriptional regulator of HIF-1 alpha in oxygen sensing and beyond

Thursday, March 19, 2015 - 15:36

FIH-1/HIF-1AN (factor inhibiting hypoxia-inducible factor-1/ HIF1AN) is a 40.3kDa protein which is expressed as asparaginyl hydroxylase enzyme in various multicellular organisms from worms/flies to mouse/rat and human beings. It functions as an oxygen sensor and, under normoxic conditions, FIH-1/HIF-1AN mediated hydroxylation prevents interaction of HIF-1 alpha with transcriptional coactivators including Cbp/p300-interacting transactivator, and it implicates in transcriptional repression process via interaction with HIF1A, VHL and HDACs. On the other hand, under hypoxic conditions, FIH-1/HIF-1AN is inactive, which leads to the activation of HIF-alpha signaling. FIH-1/HIF-1AN is mainly a cytoplasmic protein which functions inside the nuclei of cells and Liang et al 2015 have shown that the nuclear entry of FIH-1/HIF-1AN depends on HIF-1 alpha and copper (Cu), the latter being known to be critical...

LC3B - a novel marker for autophagosome

Wednesday, March 18, 2015 - 15:56

Autophagy, also known as macroautophagy, supplies alternative fuel for cells that are under environmental stress conditions (including starvation, growth factor deprivation, and hypoxia). This highly regulated and catabolic cell process recycles and repurposes pre-existing organelles as well as existing macromolecules and is a very evolutionarily conserved and fundamental process to preserve cells under adverse conditions. The LC3B protein is a subunit of the LC3 autophagy complex that associates with the microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) 1A and 1B. LC3B, along with its associated molecules, helps guide and regulates autophagosome assembly and formation. In its inactive and resting state, LC3B is found in the cytosol, but upon activation LC3B is localized to the autophagosomal membrane. LC3B and caspase-3 were used as biomarkers by scientists in a unique three-dimensional bovine mammary epithelial cell (MEC) culture model...

IRE1 alpha (inositol-requiring enzyme 1 alpha)

Friday, March 13, 2015 - 14:41

The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a eukaryotic cell process that addresses ER stress. UPR is initiated by three ER-localized sensors: PKR-like ER kinase (PERK), activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), and inositol-requiring enzyme 1 alpha (IRE1 alpha). UPR-downstream signaling is modulated by the ATF6 and IRE1-XBP1 pathways. UPR has the following important functions: inhibit protein translation to restore normal cell function; increase protein folding-involved chaperone production; and activate misfolded protein ubiquitination (for both targeting and degradation). If ER-stress is not appropriately addressed, the UPR system triggers a fail-safe of apoptosis. The IRE1 alpha protein is a single-pass, type I membrane protein within the ER that functions as a sensor of unfolded ER proteins. It is ubiquitously expressed, with highest levels notably in the pancreas. IRE1 alpha autophosphorylates and under ER stress conditions, is ADP-...

Comprehensive Autophagy Research Tools - New Catalog Available Now!

Thursday, March 12, 2015 - 13:13

Autophagy, a protein degradation process through autophagosome-lysosomal pathway, is important for cellular homeostasis and plays a role in many diseases. To help researchers learn more about this process and the products available for its study, Novus Biologicals has released a new Autophagy catalog. The new Autophagy catalog is featured with the research topics frequently studied in Autophagy, and supplemented with related product information from Bio-Techne’s four life science brands, Novus Biologicals, R&D Systems, Tocris Bioscience and ProteinSimple.

Novus Biologicals has been a leading supplier and manufacturer of Autophagy antibodies. It offers the largest catalog of Autophagy research antibodies in the industry, covering all of those most researched Autophagy targets as well as emerging targets for Autophagy research. Some of its most published antibody targets in the area include LC3,...

Blue Marker Antibody - a powerful tool for visualizing markers and target protein simultaneously!

Wednesday, March 11, 2015 - 14:27

Western blotting (or immunoblotting) is a widely used procedure to detect specific proteins in tissues and cell extracts and the Blue Marker Antibody can help make it easier and more accurate to size proteins of interest.  The Blue Marker Antibody (6F4-F6) is a unique monoclonal antibody that binds to and recognizes prestained blue dye molecular weight standards from different vendors. By allowing the user to visualize their prestained marker standards in conjunction with their target protein(s) of interest on the same immunoblot, the Blue Marker Antibody removes the need to manually mark protein marker band locations on X-ray films or data images.

blue marker antibody

Western Blot: Blue Marker Antibody (6F4-F6) [HRP] [NBP2-...

Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) - a reliable histochemical marker of hypoxia

Monday, March 9, 2015 - 15:03

Carbonic anhydrase IX is a member of the carbonic anhydrase family. This family consists of catalytic enzymes capable of converting carbon dioxide and water into carbonic acid, protons, and bicarbonate ions. This family of molecules is abundantly expressed in all mammalian tissues and helps to govern the pH in normal tissues. CAIX is very stable and found in the membrane. It is also one of the most hypoxically-inducible genes, thus establishing its application as a reliable and consistent hypoxia histochemical marker. CAIX also serves as a useful diagnostic marker for various cancers, notably renal cell carcinoma (RCC). 

CA9 IHC

Immunohistochemistry: Carbonic Anhydrase IX Antibody [NB100-417] - Renal carcinoma tissue stained with polyclonal carbonic anhydrase IX.

A comprehensive and detailed analysis of...

ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1)

Thursday, March 5, 2015 - 14:41

The ABCA1 molecule is a primary gatekeeper for regulating the intracellular transport of cholesterol. It belongs to a larger related multifamily of cAMP-dependent anion transporter cell membrane molecules. These key proteins are responsible for trafficking the reverse efflux of cholesterol from cells into peripheral tissues using the apolipoprotein A-1 (apo) carrier. In particular, the ABCA1 molecule exhibits a diverse expression profile and is found most highly expressed in macrophages.

ABCA1 antibody IHC

Immunohistochemistry: ABCA1 Antibody [NB400-105] - Detection of ABCA1 in prostate epithelium showing luminal and membrane staining.

Sporstol et al from the University of Oslo used the ABCA1 antibody in their real-time RT-PCR and immunoblotting...

53BP1 - a marker for DNA Double Strand Break

Wednesday, March 4, 2015 - 15:23

53BP1 (p53 binding protein 1) was originally thought to be an enhancer for p53 transcriptional, but later studies have demonstrated that it is actually a substrate for ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM). 53BP1 is a classic late DNA damage response (DDR) marker that is present during the cell cycle phases of telophase and cytokinesis (within mitotic mammalian cells). Grenier et al performed DNA damage experiments with the 53BP1 antibody in a rat embryo system that contained damaged paternal genomes exposed to the anticancer alkylating agent cyclophosphamide (1). These researchers determined that this metric of damage repair was useful in analyzing embryo quality as well as developmental potential of the affected tissue. Further cell cycle studies with the 53BP1 antibody focused on comparing the...

CRISPR-associated system 9 (CAS9) – a useful tool in gene editing studies

Monday, March 2, 2015 - 14:11

The CAS9 DNA-cutter is a unique enzyme that is the primary core of an intrinsic DNA editing system found in bacteria. This primitive immune system is used by bacteria to kill and neutralize attacking viruses and confer resistance to bacteriophages. There exist distinct features within most bacterial genomes commonly known as clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) that dictate the resistance specificity. This RNA-guided editing requires only 75-100 nucleotides of RNA for targeting. The powerful ability of CAS9 to drive parallel targeted DNA editing has groundbreaking implications for a huge range of biotechnology applications from gene therapy and agriculture. Compared to current brute force sequence-specific endonucleases, CAS9 is a fine-tuned system that can be easily customized and promises to be one of the most...

FOXO1/FKHR (fork head in Rhabdomyosarcoma)

Thursday, February 26, 2015 - 15:00

FOXO1 belongs to the very large Forkhead family of transcription factors which contain a conserved distinct DNA-binding domain known as the Forkhead Box, or FOX. The Forkhead domain is a 100 amino acid long motif capable of binding and bending DNA, and is also known as a “winged helix”. Forkhead family members are involved in a very diverse and wide range of physiological processes from cell cycle, apoptosis, and oxidative-stress resistance. The “O” class of proteins in particular are all regulated by the insulin/PI3K/AKT pathway. The 70 kD FOXO1 protein can act as either a coactivator or a corepressor of nuclear receptor activity. This activity is mediated through a LXXLL motif within the C-terminus of FOXO1. While the specific function of FOXO1 has not yet been determined, it appears to play a role in myogenic growth and differentiation, and translocation of this gene with PAX3 has been associated with alveolar...

Factor VIII - a key factor in the clotting process

Wednesday, February 25, 2015 - 14:36

Hemostasis, or blood clotting, follows tissue injury and involves the deployment of essential plasma procoagulants (such as prothrombin, and Factors X, IX, V, and VIII) that trigger the blood coagulation cascade. This cascade leads to the formation of insoluble fibrin clots and the promotion of platelet aggregation. Defects in Factor VIII and the coagulation cascade result in hemophilia A, a common recessive X-linked coagulation disorder. This disease is characterized by uncontrolled bleeding into joints, muscles, and soft tissues. Factor VIII is a 2,351 amino acid, non-covalent heterodimer that circulates as an inactive procofactor. When catalyzed by thrombin, Factor VIII is converted to its active form known as Factor VIIIa, which then associates with and is a cofactor for Factor IXa. In the presence of Ca2+ and phospholipids, Factor IXa converts Factor X to the activated form Factor Xa. These events are but small links within the larger coagulation signaling cascade...

P2Y2 (P2Y purinoceptor 2, ATP receptor)

Monday, February 23, 2015 - 15:11

The protein P2Y2 is a G-protein coupled metabotropic receptor that belongs to a larger family consisting of several receptor subtypes that each has a different pharmacological selectivity for various adenosine and uridine nucleotides. (This selectivity overlaps in some cases). The P2Y2 receptor is responsive to both adenosine and uridine nucleotides and thus a receptor for both ATP and UTP. P2Y2 plays a role in the activation of a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger cascade system which regulates a wide range of physiological and pathological cell processes. For example, P2Y2 appears to control cell cycling in endometrial carcinoma cells, and act as a morphogen receptor for potentiating neurotrophin signaling in neuronal development and regeneration. P2Y2 is localized to the cell membrane and is widely expressed in mammals, as it can be found in the spleen, testis, kidney, liver, lung, heart, bone, and brain. Three transcript variants...

CD20 (Cluster of differentiation 20, Membrane-spanning 4-domains subfamily A member 1 (MS4A1), CVID5, B-lymphocyte surface antigen B1)

Wednesday, February 18, 2015 - 14:47

CD20 is a human B-lymphocyte surface molecule that spans the membrane four times and is expressed on both normal and malignant cells. The CD20 antigen displays a unique expression pattern among hematopoietic cells - it is present on human pre B-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes at all stages of maturation (except for plasma cells). Low CD20 antigen expression levels have been detected on normal T-lymphocytes. It functions as a B-cell activation receptor and B-lymphocyte development and differentiation agent, presumably through modulating intracellular calcium levels. The anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (mAb) rituximab (RTX) was the first chimeric mAb approved for therapy.

CD20 western blot

Western Blot: CD20 Antibody

Expression and biochemistry studies with the...

SOX2 - a stem cell transcription factor

Monday, February 16, 2015 - 15:15

The SOX gene family encodes a group of highly conserved transcription factors defined by the presence of a conserved high motility group (HMG) DNA-binding domain. They are involved in embryonic development regulation and cell fate determination. All SOX proteins have a single HMG box and bind linear DNA in a sequence-specific manner, resulting in the bending of DNA through large angles. This bending opens the DNA helix for some distance, which may affect the binding and interactions of other transcription factors. SOX1, SOX2 and SOX3 show the closest homology to SRY, with their maximum homology within the HMG domain. These three proteins are expressed mainly in the developing nervous system.

SOX2 antibody western blot

Western blotting with the SOX2 antibody by Seo's group at...

JAMP (JNK1/MAPK8 associated membrane protein)

Friday, February 13, 2015 - 14:21

JAMP is a seven-transmembrane protein that is a regulator of JNK/MAPK8 activity in response to various stress stimuli. This regulation is part of a broader collective and coordinated response to clearing misfolded proteins from the ER. JAMP facilitates the degradation of misfolded ER luminal proteins via recruitment of the ERAD (endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation system). Aside from its interactions with MAPK8, JAMP also interacts with Ring finger protein 5 (RNF5), as well as many regulatory proteins in the ERAD such as AMFR/GP78, CANX, PSMC1/PSMC2 and PSMC5-8. JAMP undergoes a post-translational modification after ubiquitination by RNF5 in a UBE2N-dependent manner, which ultimately decreases its association with the proteasome and ERAD. JAMP is expressed in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of cells within many tissues such as brain, spleen, thymus, liver, kidney...

Caspase 11: A novel non-canonical inflammasomes

Thursday, February 12, 2015 - 15:23

Cell death via apoptosis is a key cellular function triggered by the cell death receptor family and their ligands. This regulated process then transmits downstream signals through adaptor molecules ending with the caspase cysteine proteases. Caspase 11 has a heterotetrameric structure consisting of two anti-parallel heterodimers. Upon activation, it is cleaved by an autocatalytic mechanism to give rise to individual subunits. This post-translational regulation enables rapid activation. Expression levels of caspase 11 are highest in lung and spleen. This protein plays a role in apoptosis, cell migration, and the inflammatory response.

Caspase 11 antibody

Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence: Caspase 11 Antibody

Data published in Nature from Kayagaki's group at Genentech...

Notch1 - A multifunctional transmembrane receptor

Wednesday, February 11, 2015 - 15:18

Notch1 is a member of the Notch family of Type 1 single-pass transmembrane proteins that share an extracellular domain of multiple epidermal growth factor-like (EGF) repeats. Notch family members play key roles in a variety of developmental processes via the regulation of cell fate. These processes include cell-fate determination, proliferation, and cell contact-dependent signaling. In Drosophila, notch interaction with its cell-bound ligands (delta, serrate) establishes a key development intercellular signaling pathway. The Notch signaling network is an evolutionarily conserved intercellular pathway that regulates interactions between physically adjacent cells. Activation of Notch1 triggers cleavage of the cytoplasmic domain in the trans-Golgi network and releases its intracellular domain (NICD) which is then free to form the RBPJ/RBPSUH complex which in turn influences transcription of downstream target genes. Because the majority of Notch1 ligands are transmembrane...

Interleukin 33 (IL-33) - A dual function cytokine

Monday, February 9, 2015 - 14:43

IL-33 is a member of the interleukin family of cytokines that regulates a wide variety of cellular functions. Its receptor is ST2, an IL-1 receptor family member that also acts as a negative regulator of TLR-IL-1R signaling and the IL-1R accessory protein (IL-1RAcP). Receptor binding of IL-33 activates NF-kB and MAP kinases, stimulating downstream expression of TH2-associated cytokines such as IL-4, IL-5 and IL-6. Prolonged IL-33 treatment in mice leads to the development of eosinophilia, splenomegaly, and severe pathological changes in mucosal organs. IL-33 has been shown to co-localize with heterochromatin and possesses transcriptional repressor activities, suggesting that it may function as both a proinflammatory cytokine as well as an intracellular nuclear factor with transcriptional regulatory properties.

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Beta-defensin-3: I may be small but I'm powerful!

Friday, February 6, 2015 - 14:54

Beta-defensin 3 is a novel, non-hemolytic antimicrobial cationic peptide originally isolated from human lesional psoriatic scales and keratinocyte clones. It is a very small (2-6 kD) yet potent salt-insensitive broad spectrum antimicrobial that targets many pathogenic microbes such as multiresistant S. aureus, vancomyosin-resistant Enterococcus faecium, Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, fungi, and enveloped viruses. The family of mammalian defensins are classified into alpha, beta and theta based on their size and pattern of disulfide bonding and all contain a six-cysteine motif that forms three intra-molecular disulfide bonds. Keratinocytes and airway epithelial cells are the primary cellular sources of beta-defensin-3. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) and bacterial contact both induce beta-defensin-3 mRNA expression. It appears to be important in the innate epithelial defense of infections by various microorganisms that are present in skin and lung....

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