Antibody News

cIAP2 - balancing cell death and cell survival

Thursday, April 16, 2015 - 15:30

The inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) are important regulators of cell death and inflammation. The cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 2 (cIAP2) contains three Baculovirus IAP repeat (BIR) domains, a Ubiquitin associated (UBA) domain, and a RING domain with E3 ligase activity. cIAP2 inhibits apoptosis through direct inhibition of the pro-apoptotic caspase-3. cIAP2 also regulates cell survival through its role in the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) signaling pathway. TNF-alpha is an important cytokine that elicits a pro-inflammatory response through the activation of nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB). cIAP2 plays a crucial role downstream of the tumor necrosis factor receptor through the ubiquitylation of the effector protein RIP1 and by triggering the degradation of IkB alpha, a negative regulator of NF-kB, and...

ATG9A - early marker autophagosome assembly

Wednesday, April 15, 2015 - 14:53

ATG9A is the only essential integral membrane protein involved in autophagy. ATG9A contains six transmembrane domains and initiates the assembly of autophagosomes. The autophagosome is a double-membrane structure that engulfs and eventually degrades cytoplasmic materials such as organelles or macromolecules. Assembly of the autophagosome requires the delivery of lipids and membrane components to initiate and expand the double-membrane pre-autophagosome structure called the isolation membrane. ATG9A localizes to highly mobile cytoplasmic vesicles which are thought to play a key role in recruiting and delivering membrane and lipids to the assembling autophagosome. Interestingly ATG9A localizes only to the outer membrane layer of the double-membrane pre-autophagosome structure. This essential role in autophagosome assembly makes ATG9A an excellent marker for autophagy induction and for examining the membrane dynamics of early autophagosome...

BNIP3 - a regulator of mitochondrial autophagy and cell death

Monday, April 13, 2015 - 14:38

Bcl-2 nineteen-kilodalton interacting protein 3 (BNIP3) is a pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein. BNIP3 localizes to the mitochondrial membrane where it plays a key role in mitochondrial autophagy and cell death pathways. Similar to other Bcl-2 family members, BNIP3 binds to Bcl-2 and can activate the downstream effectors of Bax/Bak. However in contrast to the other family members, BNIP3 is a much weaker inducer of cell death and it is the transmembrane domain of BNIP3 that is responsible for this activity and not its BH3 domain. Depending on the cellular context BNIP3 can induce different forms of cell death including apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy. BNIP3 can insert into the mitochondrial membrane and induce the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore and eventually lead to necrosis. BNIP3 can also trigger the release of cytochrome c during apoptosis...

8 Facts People Working In a Lab Will Understand

Friday, April 10, 2015 - 10:44

Read our list of eight facts people in a lab will understand including: pipetting counts as thumb cardio, a watched frozen trypsin bottle never thaws, dark bags under your eyes are evidence your experiment needs more optimization,  700 post-it notes are just as good as a lab notebook and more. Do you have a fact that wasn’t included in the list? Submit it in the comments section below and we will add it to our next list.

lab facts

Caspase 3 - an important marker of apoptosis

Thursday, April 9, 2015 - 14:46

Apoptotic cell death is fundamental cell process that utilizes the cell death receptor family signaling network. This key pathway is stimulated by ligands which then regulate downstream adaptor molecules, ultimately activating the caspase proteases. The caspase enzymes exist in an inactive precursor state comprised of a prodomain, as well as large and small catalytic subunits. Caspases are activated by a cleavage that occurs adjacent to an aspartate; this cleavage liberates the individual units and allows formation of an a2b2 tetramer. Caspase 3 is one member of this large family and is found in the cytoplasm. It exists in two isoforms (one acts as a dominant negative inhibitor), and specifically activates apoptosis execution within the cascade. Caspase 3 has been shown to cleave and activate numerous effectors including SREBPs, Caspase 6, Caspase 7, and...

IL-1 beta (interleukin 1 beta, lymphocyte activating factor (LAF))

Wednesday, April 8, 2015 - 15:17

IL-1 was originally identified and cloned as a lymphocyte mitogen and much later, was found to be comprised of two closely related but distinct proteins, interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta). Both these proteins bind to the same cell surface receptor. IL-1 is primarily released from stimulated macrophages, but is also released from several other cell types. Along with other IL-1 gene family members, IL-1 beta falls within a cytokine gene cluster on chromosome 2. It plays a key role in inflammatory and immune cell processes.

IL-1 beta antibody

Western Blot: IL-1 beta/IL-1F2 Antibody [NB600-633] - analysis of IL-1 beta in Rhesus fetal membrane using anti-IL-1 beta antibody. 

In their 2009 Nature Medicine publication, French researchers...

Complement C3 - the most important protein in the complement system

Monday, April 6, 2015 - 14:54

The complement system is made up of a collection of proteins found in the bloodstream and is comprised of nine major complement proteins; complement C3 is one of them. The complement system is a crucial component of the cellular immune system because it kills unwanted bacteria and initiates inflammation. Within the complement system family of proteins, C3 is the most plentiful as well as most central protein, and consists of an alpha and a beta chain. The C3 activation step represents the convergence of the lectin, classical, and alternative complement activation pathways. Circulating blood C3 levels are important assessment tools for monitoring treatment efficacy in patients with autoimmune disorders. Individuals suffering from a C3 deficiency are more susceptible to bacterial infections.

Complement C3 antibody WB

Western Blot: Complement...

SUCNR1/GPR91 - a potential role in renovascular hypertension

Friday, April 3, 2015 - 14:49

SUCNR1 is the cognate receptor for the Kreb's citric acid cycle intermediate succinate. It is of interest to scientists because it is involved in not only energy metabolism but possibly also in renovascular hypertension, a condition linked to diabetes, renal failure, and atherosclerosis.  This G-protein coupled receptor is most highly expressed in the kidney - predominantly in the proximal tubules. Two signaling pathways have been identified downstream from SUCNR1: a pertussis-toxin-sensitive Gi/Go pathway, as well as a pertussis-toxin-insensitive Gq pathway.

GPR91 Antibody

Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: GPR91 Antibody [NBP1-00861] - IHC staining of GPR91 in mouse Vas Deferens where strong membrane staining is observed.

Ophthalmologists from Shanghai employed the...

Monocarboxylate Transporter 1 (MCT1) - a novel oncogene

Thursday, April 2, 2015 - 14:34

MCT1 is a proton-linked transport carrier that catalyzes the movement of short chain monocarboxylates (branched-chain oxo acids derived from leucine, valine, and isoleucine) across both plasma and inner mitochondrial membranes. In particular, substances such as lactate, pyruvate, butyrate, and ketone bodies are shuttled; these play big roles in cell metabolism particularly in tissues and organs like the kidney, intestine, liver, and brain.

MCT1 antibody IHC

Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: Monocarboxylic acid transporter 1 Antibody [NBP1-59656] - IHC staining with Monocarboxylic acid transporter 1 antibody. Strong staining of lumen and crypt cells was observed with weaker cytoplasmic staining observed in the submucosa of mouse intestine.

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Funny Protein Names Infographic

Wednesday, April 1, 2015 - 10:20

This is not a joke, these proteins with funny names actually do exist. View our list of six proteins with funny and unusual names including: Bambi, Yippee-like 3, Wee1, SPAM1, SPOCK1 and Bagpipe homeobox protein homolog 1. Learn more about their function and molecular weight. Do you have a funny protein name not included on the list? Submit a name in the comment section to let us know which ones should be included in our next infographic.  

Funny protein names Infographic

Novus Biologicals offers reagents for the funny names listed above:

Inhibitor kappa B-alpha (IkappaB-alpha)

Monday, March 30, 2015 - 14:46

The transcription factor nuclear factor kappa beta (NFkB) is highly regulated by triggers such as stress, free-radicals, UV light, and hypoxia. NFkB is one of the fastest responding transcription factors in humans. The NFKB signaling pathway is essential for cancer progression because it governs many downstream molecules that control cellular growth and development. The effects of NFkB on angiogenic pathways and cell response mechanisms to stress and damage are well established in the literature. NFkB is normally silenced in the cytoplasm by association with its inhibitory protein IkB. Ligands such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) or other cytokines trigger phosphorylation of IkB by the IkB kinase (IKK) complex. This phosphorylation triggers IkB degradation, resulting in the release of the NF-kB dimers which are then free to translocate into the nucleus and activate downstream target genes. IkB alpha is one of six members of the IkB family.

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Dnmt1 - A ubiquitous DNA methyltransferase

Friday, March 27, 2015 - 14:30

The Dnmt1 enzyme is a member of the C5-methyltransferase family responsible for repairing cytosines in double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). This enzyme uses a nucleophilic attack mechanism and is the most abundantly found mammalian DNA methyltransferase. It primarily acts upon CpG residues and prefers hemimethylated residues, but can also methylating unmethylated DNA. The cell relies upon Dnmt1 as its key methylation maintenance enzyme both for DNA replication and repair as well as for de novo methylation during somatic cell development and differentiation. In cell division, it is required for epigenetic inheritance because it complexes with S-phase DNA replication sites to faithfully maintain the original methylation pattern into the newly made strand. To maintain the DNA methylated state of the DNA independently of replication, Dnmt1 also regularly cycles through states of complex formation and localization. It has the following expression pattern: associated with chromatin...

D4-GDI (GDP dissociation inhibitor, RhoGD12)

Thursday, March 26, 2015 - 15:05

The D4-GDI protein is a negative regulator of the Ras-related Rho family of small molecule "molecular switch" GTPases. The Rho GTPases modify cell structure and architecture via rapid changes to the actin cytoskeleton and cell membrane. Many of these physiological processes are associated with apoptotic cell death, thus the in vivo removal of D4-GDI inhibitory block is critical for proper induction and progression of apoptosis in cells. This removal of D4-GDI is effected by the caspase-3 protease, which cleaves the full length 28kD mature D4-GDI form into smaller 23kD and 5kD fragments. The 23kD fragment then translocates to the nucleus. Creighton University researchers used the D4-GDI antibody in their studies on human estrogen receptor-alpha (hER-alpha66) signaling in breast cancer models (1). They undertook this work in hopes of understanding estrogen and antiestrogen signaling...

Cytochrome C - a mediator of apoptosis

Wednesday, March 25, 2015 - 15:05

Cytochrome C is a small heme protein within the inner mitochondrial membrane responsible for carrying electrons within the respiratory transport chain.  Additionally, cytochrome c has also been identified as a player in programmed cell death (apoptosis). During the early phases of apoptotic death reactions, cytochrome c translocates from the mitochondria membrane into the cytoplasm and serves to trigger the apoptotic proteolytic cascade by activating caspase 3, through association with protease activating factor-1 (Apaf-1). Apoptotic programmed death also involves the catalysis of lipid peroxidation in the mitochondria when cytochrome c is bound to acidic lipids such as cardiolipin.

Cytochrome C western blot

Western Blot: Cytochrome C Antibody (7H8...

CCR1 (C-C chemokine receptor type 1)

Monday, March 23, 2015 - 14:33

Chemokines play a central role in inflammation and are crucial for recruitment of immune cells to sites of infection. The chemokine-dependent activation of leukocytes occurs through binding to G-protein coupled receptors. These chemokine receptor subtypes can be divided into two major groups, CXCR and CCR. CCR1 in particular is a receptor for the leukocyte chemoattractant and hemopoiesis regulator macrophage-inflammatory protein (MIP-1), eotaxin, RANTES, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1), and other related beta chemokines. CCR1 regulates both stem cell proliferation and systemic inflammatory responses. Knockout mice lacking CCR1 have severe defects in neutrophil trafficking and proliferation. Within tissues, CCR1 is widely expressed, particularly in hematopoietic cells (neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, and eosinophils), blood, vessels, and bone...

Caspase 8 - a key mediator of apoptosis

Friday, March 20, 2015 - 14:29

Programmed cell death via apoptosis is a key controlled physiological process instigated by the cell death receptor family, their ligands, and the caspase cysteine protease family. All caspases exist in a precursor form that contains a prodomain, and large and small catalytic subunits. A cleavage event adjacent to an aspartate liberates one large and one small subunit, which are now free to associate into an active a2b2 tetramer. Caspases are activated by triggers such as ligand-receptor interactions, growth factor deprivation, and cell function inhibitors. Caspase 8 is the directly connection between CD95 activation and the caspase network, and caspase 8 overexpression causes apoptosis.

Caspase 8 antibody

Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: Caspase 8 Antibody [NBP1-05123] - Formalin-fixed,...

FIH-1/HIF-1AN - a transcriptional regulator of HIF-1 alpha in oxygen sensing and beyond

Thursday, March 19, 2015 - 15:36

FIH-1/HIF-1AN (factor inhibiting hypoxia-inducible factor-1/ HIF1AN) is a 40.3kDa protein which is expressed as asparaginyl hydroxylase enzyme in various multicellular organisms from worms/flies to mouse/rat and human beings. It functions as an oxygen sensor and, under normoxic conditions, FIH-1/HIF-1AN mediated hydroxylation prevents interaction of HIF-1 alpha with transcriptional coactivators including Cbp/p300-interacting transactivator, and it implicates in transcriptional repression process via interaction with HIF1A, VHL and HDACs. On the other hand, under hypoxic conditions, FIH-1/HIF-1AN is inactive, which leads to the activation of HIF-alpha signaling. FIH-1/HIF-1AN is mainly a cytoplasmic protein which functions inside the nuclei of cells and Liang et al 2015 have shown that the nuclear entry of FIH-1/HIF-1AN depends on HIF-1 alpha and copper (Cu), the latter being known to be critical...

LC3B - a novel marker for autophagosome

Wednesday, March 18, 2015 - 15:56

Autophagy, also known as macroautophagy, supplies alternative fuel for cells that are under environmental stress conditions (including starvation, growth factor deprivation, and hypoxia). This highly regulated and catabolic cell process recycles and repurposes pre-existing organelles as well as existing macromolecules and is a very evolutionarily conserved and fundamental process to preserve cells under adverse conditions. The LC3B protein is a subunit of the LC3 autophagy complex that associates with the microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) 1A and 1B. LC3B, along with its associated molecules, helps guide and regulates autophagosome assembly and formation. In its inactive and resting state, LC3B is found in the cytosol, but upon activation LC3B is localized to the autophagosomal membrane. LC3B and caspase-3 were used as biomarkers by scientists in a unique three-dimensional bovine mammary epithelial cell (MEC) culture model...

IRE1 alpha (inositol-requiring enzyme 1 alpha)

Friday, March 13, 2015 - 14:41

The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a eukaryotic cell process that addresses ER stress. UPR is initiated by three ER-localized sensors: PKR-like ER kinase (PERK), activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), and inositol-requiring enzyme 1 alpha (IRE1 alpha). UPR-downstream signaling is modulated by the ATF6 and IRE1-XBP1 pathways. UPR has the following important functions: inhibit protein translation to restore normal cell function; increase protein folding-involved chaperone production; and activate misfolded protein ubiquitination (for both targeting and degradation). If ER-stress is not appropriately addressed, the UPR system triggers a fail-safe of apoptosis. The IRE1 alpha protein is a single-pass, type I membrane protein within the ER that functions as a sensor of unfolded ER proteins. It is ubiquitously expressed, with highest levels notably in the pancreas. IRE1 alpha autophosphorylates and under ER stress conditions, is ADP-...

Comprehensive Autophagy Research Tools - New Catalog Available Now!

Thursday, March 12, 2015 - 13:13

Autophagy, a protein degradation process through autophagosome-lysosomal pathway, is important for cellular homeostasis and plays a role in many diseases. To help researchers learn more about this process and the products available for its study, Novus Biologicals has released a new Autophagy catalog. The new Autophagy catalog is featured with the research topics frequently studied in Autophagy, and supplemented with related product information from Bio-Techne’s four life science brands, Novus Biologicals, R&D Systems, Tocris Bioscience and ProteinSimple.

Novus Biologicals has been a leading supplier and manufacturer of Autophagy antibodies. It offers the largest catalog of Autophagy research antibodies in the industry, covering all of those most researched Autophagy targets as well as emerging targets for Autophagy research. Some of its most published antibody targets in the area include LC3,...

Blue Marker Antibody - a powerful tool for visualizing markers and target protein simultaneously!

Wednesday, March 11, 2015 - 14:27

Western blotting (or immunoblotting) is a widely used procedure to detect specific proteins in tissues and cell extracts and the Blue Marker Antibody can help make it easier and more accurate to size proteins of interest.  The Blue Marker Antibody (6F4-F6) is a unique monoclonal antibody that binds to and recognizes prestained blue dye molecular weight standards from different vendors. By allowing the user to visualize their prestained marker standards in conjunction with their target protein(s) of interest on the same immunoblot, the Blue Marker Antibody removes the need to manually mark protein marker band locations on X-ray films or data images.

blue marker antibody

Western Blot: Blue Marker Antibody (6F4-F6) [HRP] [NBP2-...

Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) - a reliable histochemical marker of hypoxia

Monday, March 9, 2015 - 15:03

Carbonic anhydrase IX is a member of the carbonic anhydrase family. This family consists of catalytic enzymes capable of converting carbon dioxide and water into carbonic acid, protons, and bicarbonate ions. This family of molecules is abundantly expressed in all mammalian tissues and helps to govern the pH in normal tissues. CAIX is very stable and found in the membrane. It is also one of the most hypoxically-inducible genes, thus establishing its application as a reliable and consistent hypoxia histochemical marker. CAIX also serves as a useful diagnostic marker for various cancers, notably renal cell carcinoma (RCC). 

CA9 IHC

Immunohistochemistry: Carbonic Anhydrase IX Antibody [NB100-417] - Renal carcinoma tissue stained with polyclonal carbonic anhydrase IX.

A comprehensive and detailed analysis of...

ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1)

Thursday, March 5, 2015 - 14:41

The ABCA1 molecule is a primary gatekeeper for regulating the intracellular transport of cholesterol. It belongs to a larger related multifamily of cAMP-dependent anion transporter cell membrane molecules. These key proteins are responsible for trafficking the reverse efflux of cholesterol from cells into peripheral tissues using the apolipoprotein A-1 (apo) carrier. In particular, the ABCA1 molecule exhibits a diverse expression profile and is found most highly expressed in macrophages.

ABCA1 antibody IHC

Immunohistochemistry: ABCA1 Antibody [NB400-105] - Detection of ABCA1 in prostate epithelium showing luminal and membrane staining.

Sporstol et al from the University of Oslo used the ABCA1 antibody in their real-time RT-PCR and immunoblotting...

53BP1 - a marker for DNA Double Strand Break

Wednesday, March 4, 2015 - 15:23

53BP1 (p53 binding protein 1) was originally thought to be an enhancer for p53 transcriptional, but later studies have demonstrated that it is actually a substrate for ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM). 53BP1 is a classic late DNA damage response (DDR) marker that is present during the cell cycle phases of telophase and cytokinesis (within mitotic mammalian cells). Grenier et al performed DNA damage experiments with the 53BP1 antibody in a rat embryo system that contained damaged paternal genomes exposed to the anticancer alkylating agent cyclophosphamide (1). These researchers determined that this metric of damage repair was useful in analyzing embryo quality as well as developmental potential of the affected tissue. Further cell cycle studies with the 53BP1 antibody focused on comparing the...

CRISPR-associated system 9 (CAS9) – a useful tool in gene editing studies

Monday, March 2, 2015 - 14:11

The CAS9 DNA-cutter is a unique enzyme that is the primary core of an intrinsic DNA editing system found in bacteria. This primitive immune system is used by bacteria to kill and neutralize attacking viruses and confer resistance to bacteriophages. There exist distinct features within most bacterial genomes commonly known as clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) that dictate the resistance specificity. This RNA-guided editing requires only 75-100 nucleotides of RNA for targeting. The powerful ability of CAS9 to drive parallel targeted DNA editing has groundbreaking implications for a huge range of biotechnology applications from gene therapy and agriculture. Compared to current brute force sequence-specific endonucleases, CAS9 is a fine-tuned system that can be easily customized and promises to be one of the most...

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