Antibody News

VEGF: Vascular endothelial growth factor

Monday, November 24, 2014 - 09:36

VEGF is homodimeric, disulfide-linked glycoprotein cytokine that serves as the ligand for FLT1 (VEGFR-1 receptor) and FLK1 (VEGFR-2 receptor) tyrosine kinases. It is a key modulator of physiological angiogenesis, vasculogenesis, and endothelial cell growth during basic developmental processes such as embryogenesis, skeletal growth, and reproductive functions. The VEGF ligand/receptor signaling system stimulates endothelial cell proliferation, blood vessel permeabilization, cell migration, and inhibition of apoptosis. There exist several widely expressed isoforms (VEGF189, VEGF165 and VEGF121) as well as some that are not as commonly found (VEGF206 and VEGF145). The basic VEGF189 isoform is cell-associated after secretion and is bound avidly by heparin and the extracellular matrix (ECM).

TLR4 - A Guardian of Innate Immunity

Friday, November 21, 2014 - 09:16

Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) belongs to the family of Toll-like receptors (TLR), and plays a main role in pathogen recognition and innate immunity system activation. The TLR family members are highly conserved proteins that all contain a high degree of structural and functional homology in organisms from Drosophila all the way up to humans. TLRs regulate the cellular cytokine production required for efficient innate immunity development through their recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) expressed across a wide range of ligands, including infectious agents. TLR4 recognizes the Gram-negative bacterial membrane component lipopolysaccharide (LPS).

Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: TLR4 Antibody Immunohistochemistry-...

Ly6G - a marker for monocytes, granulocytes and neutrophils

Thursday, November 20, 2014 - 09:22

Ly6G (Lymphocyte antigen 6 complex locus G6D) is a 21-25kD glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked differentiation antigen that is expressed by myeloid-derived cells in a tightly developmentally-regulated manner in the bone marrow. Monocytes express Ly6G transiently during bone marrow development, while Ly6G expression in granulocytes and peripheral neutrophils directly correlates with the cell’s level of differentiation and maturation. This hallmark makes Ly6G a good marker for these particular cell populations. Ly6G has also been implicated in the development of antitumor responses.

Flow Cytometry: Ly-6G Antibody Flow Cytometry: Ly-6G Antibody


Researchers from the Genetics Institute at Andover used the...

TLR2 - I can recognize many foreign pathogens!

Tuesday, November 18, 2014 - 09:06

TLR2 is a member of the broad family of Toll-like receptors (TLR) that play an important role in pathogen recognition and innate immunity. TLRs, like other pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), recognize endogenous ligands released during cell or tissue damage (DAMPs) as well as exogenous, pathogen associated ligands from bacteria or viruses (PAMPs).  Upon recognition of a specific ligand, PRRs activate host defense processes including cytokine and inflammatory mediator secretion, and innate immune cell activation and proliferation.  TLR2 recognizes the bacterial cell wall component, peptidoglycan. Recent Studies

  • A TLR2 antibody expression profiling study published by Palladino et al uncovered detailed profiles for over a dozen TLR family members in rat male reproductive tract organs and tissues1.
  • A Dutch research group used a TLR2 antibody to create similar expression...

Beta-catenin - I am versatile!

Monday, November 17, 2014 - 09:01

Beta-catenin is a cytosolic, 88 kDa intracellular protein associated with cell surface cadherin glycoproteins. It is a member of the larger calcium-dependent catenin family that includes alpha-catenin, beta-catenin, and gamma-catenin (also known as plakoglobin). Beta-catenin enters the nucleus to interact with TCF/LEF (Lymphoid enhancer factor-1) transcription factor family. It is normally inhibited by the GSK (glycogen synthase kinase) or CK1 (casein kinase 1) as phosphorylation of beta-catenin targets it for ubiquitin-mediated degradation.  The beta-catenin/TCF pathway is involved in T-cell development and differentiation and may be a target for immune and autoimmune disorders.

BAG3 - Hsp70 is my friend!

Friday, November 14, 2014 - 08:50

The BAG proteins are a large family of chaperone regulators governing a wide range of cell processes such as proliferation, survival, stress response, tumorigenesis, neuronal differentiation, growth arrest and apoptosis as reviewed in Takayama et al1. BAG proteins are co-chaperones that interact with several forms of the chaperone heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) – the association allows them to both positively and negatively regulate Hsp70. Family members include BAG-1 and its various isoforms, BAG-1L, BAG2, BAG3, BAG4 (SODD), BAG5, and BAG6 (Scythe, BAT3). BAG3 is involved in chaperone-mediated selective autophagy. BAG3 antibody was used by Liao et al in their expression studies in human pancreatic cancer tissues and cell lines2. With the...

Factor VII - A Major Protein in Blood Coagulation

Friday, October 31, 2014 - 13:14

Factor VII (coagulation factor VII) is a 50 kD multidomain single chain plasma glycoprotein synthesized in the liver. It is a vitamin K-dependent serine protease essential for the extrinsic pathway of hemostasis, or blood coagulation. Factor VII circulates in the blood in a zymogen form that is converted to an active form (via factor IXa, factor Xa, factor XIIa, or thrombin). Rare bleeding disorders (RBDs) are rare within the general community, but present both a diagnostic and effective treatment challenge due to the highly variable range in clinical presentation and cause. Defects in Factor VII cause coagulopathy and hemorrhagic disease, which range in severity from mild tolerable events to acutely severe and repeated hemarthroses and life-threatening intracerebral hemorrhages.

There is nothing beta than PKC Alpha

Friday, October 31, 2014 - 12:38

cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is a Ser/Thr protein kinase that is highly conserved between species. Three distinct catalytic (C) subunits have been identified, designated C-alpha, C-beta and C-gamma, where C-alpha and C-beta are most closely related. PKA mediates a variety of diverse cellular responses (cell growth and proliferation, ion transport, triglyceride storage and metabolism regulation, embryonic development, and gene transcription) in virtually all eukaryotic systems via phosphorylation of a wide range of downstream target proteins in both they cytoplasm and nucleus. Elevation of cAMP triggers the following cascade of events: PKA translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, transcription factor cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation, TFIIB binding to the TATA-box-binding protein TBP1, and lastly, phosphorylated CREB binding to the pol II transcription initiation complex.


CRISPR-associated system 9 (CAS9)

Thursday, October 30, 2014 - 14:31

CAS9 is a novel DNA-cutting enzyme that is the main component of an intrinsic DNA editing system used by bacteria to kill attacking viruses. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) are distinct features of most bacterial genomes, and thought to be involved in resistance to bacteriophages. CRISPR is a primitive immune system of sorts that determines resistance specificity, as published by the Danisco Corporation in Science1. Because of CAS9’s ability to allow for parallel targeted DNA edits has huge implications in a wide range of applications, including gene therapy, agricultural advancements, and energy-producing microbes for biofuels. Deltcheva et al investigated mechanisms of CRISPR RNA maturation and identified a small trans-encoded RNA that appears to direct RNA-mediated immunity2.

Scary Protein Names: Halloween Infographic Edition

Wednesday, October 29, 2014 - 11:41

Check out some of the spooky protein names as we approach Halloween in our Scary Protein Name Infographic. Learn about their function, gene name, molecular weight and subcellular location. Featured proteins in this infographic include: SCARE1, DEAD Box Protein 60, Spo Spook, BAT3, BOO and GST. Happy Halloween!

Scary Protein Names

Novus Biologicals offers research reagents mentioned in this post including:

Ready, set, activate: (IL2RA/CD25)

Monday, October 27, 2014 - 15:02

The Interleukin 2 Receptor alpha and beta chains, along with the common gamma chain, comprise the high affinity IL2 receptor(IL2R) that is present on both mature activated T- and B-cells, as well as early progenitors of T- and B-cells (thymocytes, pre B-cells, and T-regulatory cells). Formation of homodimeric alpha chains (IL2RA) results in a low affinity receptor, while homodimeric beta chains (IL2RB) produce a medium affinity receptor. IL2RA is normally an integral membrane protein, but a soluble IL2 Receptor alpha has been isolated and appears as the result of extracellular proteolysis. IL2RA plays a key role in lymphocyte differentiation, activation, and proliferation.

Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: IL2RA/CD25 Antibody ...

CD8 alpha - Marker for cytotoxic T lymphocytes

Friday, October 24, 2014 - 15:01

The T-cell co-receptor CD8 is a cell-surface glycoprotein that bridges the lipid bilayer by interacting externally with ligands, such as major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I, as well as internally with signaling molecules such as tyrosine kinase p56 lck. CD8 associates with lck through a zinc clasp structure and down regulates major Th2-type cytokine production. It is expressed on thymocyte subsets and cytotoxic T-cells and exists as either as a disulfide-linked homodimer or as a heterodimer of CD8 alpha and CD8 beta.  CD8 plays an important role in T-cell development in the thymus and T-cell activation in the periphery.

Immunohistochemistry: CD8 alpha Antibody Immunohistochemistry: CD8 alpha Antibody

Early studies...

Lymphocyte activation gene 3 (LAG3): No lag time in immune response

Thursday, October 23, 2014 - 14:44

The LAG3 protein belongs to the Ig superfamily and contains 4 extracellular Ig-like domains (D1-D4). This molecule plays an key role in the immune response through negative regulation of T-cell proliferation, function, and homeostasis. It is required for maximum natural and induced regulatory T-cell function. LAG3 is closely related to the T-cell co-receptor CD4, and like CD4, binds to MHC class II molecules - but with a significantly higher affinity. It is expressed exclusively in activated T- and natural killer (NK) lymphocytes.

Western Blot: Lymphocyte Activation Gene 3 Antibody Western Blot: Lymphocyte Activation Gene 3 Antibody


Studies with the...

TNF alpha (tumor necrosis factor alpha, cachectin, macrophage cytotoxic factor (MCF))

Wednesday, October 22, 2014 - 15:01

TNF alpha is a multifunctional proinflammatory cytokine that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-receptor superfamily. It is involved in the regulation of a wide spectrum of biological processes: cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, inflammation, lipid metabolism, and coagulation. TNF alpha has been implicated in a variety of autoimmune diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, multiple sclerosis, and psoriasis), insulin resistance, septic shock, and tumor metastases related to cancer. The major source of TNF alpha is activated macrophages but it is also secreted by T-cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and certain tumor cells. This cytokine received its designation because it causes tumor necrosis when injected into tumor-bearing mice.  TNF alpha exists as a multimer of two, three, or five noncovalently linked units and is closely related to tumor necrosis factor beta (TNF beta, or lymphotoxin),...

EpCAM or CD326 - Take your pick

Monday, October 20, 2014 - 14:45

The type I transmembrane glycoprotein EpCAM is a monomeric membrane glycoprotein that is expressed on most epithelial cell membranes as well as on a variety of epithelial carcinomas. It contains an extracellular domain with two epidermal growth factor-like extracellular domain repeats adjacent to a cysteine-poor region, along with a transmembrane domain, and a short cytoplasmic tail. EpCAM is a powerful tool for the detection of circulating and disseminated cancer cells (CTCs/DTCs) in blood and bone marrow, and it is the most commonly used epithelial marker to capture CTCs/DTCs. EpCAM expression appears to be down regulated during the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Aleksic et al performed a western blot with the EpCAM antibody for their studies on the impact of insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) and its nuclear import on downstream function1. Their data suggests that import may play a key role in identifying...

CD79b - A Signal Transduction Component of the B-cell Receptor

Friday, October 17, 2014 - 14:44

The B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) is a complex multimeric aggregate that includes the following key noncovalently-bound components: antigen-specific surface immunoglobulin (Ig), CD79a (Ig-alpha), and CD79b (Ig-beta). BCR signaling is a pivotal pathway in tumorigenesis. The CD79 signaling subunits are essential for proper B-cell development, maintenance, and activation. Both are transmembrane proteins with extended cytoplasmic domains containing immunoreceptor tyrosine activation motives (ITAMs). Their expression (both alpha and beta) is restricted to B-lymphocytes and they are the first BCR components developmentally expressed.

Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence: CD79b Antibody...

Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Class I

Thursday, October 16, 2014 - 15:03

The products of MHC genes are antigen-presenting molecules (APMs) designed for antigen fragment (peptide) presentation to the T-cell receptor. In particular, MHC Class I molecules play a key role in the immune system by presenting endogenously synthesized peptides derived from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen to CD8+ T-lymphocytes, which are usually cytotoxic T-cells. MHC Class I antigens are heterodimers consisting of one 44kD highly polymorphic alpha chain non-covalently complexed with an invariant 11.5kD beta2-microglobulin subunit. The MHC Class I antigen is expressed on all somatic cells at varying levels – mostly on nucleated cells. Fibroblasts or neurons show only low levels of MHC Class I.

Multifunctional CD38

Wednesday, October 15, 2014 - 11:13

CD38 is a 42 kD type II transmembrane glycoprotein that uses nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) as a substrate to form cyclic adenosine diphosphate ribose (cADPR). This novel multifunctional ectoenzyme has both cyclase and hydrolase enzymatic activity, and is expressed on the surface of most white blood cells (CD4+, CD8+, B-lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells).  It is also expressed at high levels in normal tissues and organs like the pancreas, liver, and kidney as well as in malignant lymphoma and neuroblastoma. In addition to having a key role in lymphocyte activation and differentiation, CD38 is also involved in cell adhesion, signal transduction, insulin secretion, and calcium signaling.

Cytokeratin 18 - A Intermediate Filament Cyotskeletal Component

Tuesday, October 14, 2014 - 14:47

Keratins, also called cytokeratins, are a family of filamentous structural proteins that form the intermediate filaments within epithelial cells. Keratins are differentially expressed depending on both the epithelial cell origin and degree of differentiation. An antibody to any given keratin is useful either as a stand-alone or part of an antibody panel to help identify or clarify tissue origin. Cytokeratin 18 (CK18) is a 45 kD normal constituent of the hepatocyte cytoskeleton and is expressed in combination with cytokeratin 8.  The cytokeratins 18 and 8 are the major keratin pair most commonly expressed intermediate filaments in single layer or simple epithelial tissues. CK18 is used as a tumor marker, not only because it is often persistently expressed in tumor cells derived from simple epithelia, but also because keratin expression patterns enable valuable sub-typing of tumors. Studies with the ...

Ki67 - A Crucial Cellular Proliferation Marker

Monday, October 13, 2014 - 14:45

The Ki67 antigen is a prototypic cell cycle-related protein expressed by proliferating cells in all phases of the active cell cycle (G1, S, G2 and M). It is a non-histone nuclear protein originally identified in a Hodgkin's lymphoma-derived cell line. Ki67 interacts with KIF15 and MKI67IP, and is approximately 395 kD. It exhibits a complex nuclear localization pattern that is cell cycle-dependent - expression peaks during late G1, S, G2, and M phases, but is undetectable in G0. Ki67 is phosphorylated and dephosphorylated during mitosis, and appears to be susceptible to proteolytic regulation. Due to its cell cycle association, Ki67 is routinely used as cell cycling and proliferation marker. Additionally, Ki67 antibodies are useful in establishing the cell growing fraction in solid tumors and certain hematological malignancies.

Podoplanin (OST8, Glycoprotein (Gp) 36 or 38, Lung Type I Cell Membrane Associated Glycoprotein)

Friday, October 10, 2014 - 14:53

Podoplanin is a mucin-type 1 transmembrane glycoprotein found in a wide range of tissues. It appears to be differentially expressed in endothelial cells of lymphatic but not blood vessel origin. In normal skin and kidney, podoplanin co-localizes with VEGFR3/FLT4, another marker for lymphatic endothelial cells. It appears to be involved in lymphangioigenesis and cell migration and is regulated by the lymphatic-specific homeobox gene Prox1. Podoplanin has also been found to be expressed on a wide variety of tumors. Immunohistochemical studies with the podoplanin antibody from Schacht’s lab is a crucial player in directing the processes of cell adhesion, migration, and tube formation for lymphatic vasculature formation1.

SOX9 - Be careful, I can reverse your gender!

Wednesday, October 8, 2014 - 14:38

SOX9 is a member of the SOX family of HMG DNA-binding domain transcription factors. The protein encoded by this gene recognizes the sequence CCTTGAG along with other members of the HMG-box class DNA-binding proteins. cAMP and protein kinase A (PKA) stimulation appear to induce SOX-9 nuclear translocation through its nuclear import upon phosphorylation at two particular serine residues.   It is required for the development and differentiation of multiple cell lineages and is expressed in primary and recurrent prostate cancers. In prostate basal cells, SOX9 supports the development and maintenance of the luminal epithelium. Most likely a subset of prostate cancer cells subverts normal basal cell requirements through unregulated SOX9 expression.

MUC4 (Mucin-4)

Monday, October 6, 2014 - 14:35

Mucus is the viscous secretion that covers epithelial surfaces (trachea, colon, and cervix) and consists of twenty highly glycosylated proteins called mucins. The mucin family all are high-molecular weight proteins with oligosaccharides attached to the serine or threonine residues of their core protein backbone by O-glycosidic linkages. Mucins play fundamental roles in mucosal cell protection, lubrication, and communication with their external environment as detailed by Corfield1. They have been implicated in epithelial renewal and differentiation. There are two distinct categories of mucins: transmembrane mucins (MUC1, MUC3, MUC4, MUC12, MUC13, MUC15, MUC16, MUC17, MUC20 and MUC21) and secreted mucins (MUC2, MUC5AC, MUC5B, MUC6, MUC7, and MUC19).  MUC4 in particular is normally expressed in epithelial tissues including respiratory, colonic, and...

Virus Appreciation Day Infographic

Friday, October 3, 2014 - 13:03

Viruses infect host cells with their genetic material and then reproduce. They are found in humans, plants, bacteria and other places where they can infect cells, adapt and change. In celebration of Virus Appreciation Day, a day discover more about viruses, learn more about viruses in our infographic. virus appreciation day By: Lisa Ikariyama & Kim Mesman Download the PDF version of the Virus Appreciation Day Infographic. Resources:

  1. Scientific American
  3. ...

Cyanine (Cy)

Thursday, October 2, 2014 - 15:00

Cyanine dyes are members of the polymethine synthetic dye family historically used to increase photographic emulsion sensitivity. Cyanine dyes have versatile applications and are commonly used as fluorescent labels for proteins, nucleic acids, and small molecules. They are particularly suited for biomedical imaging, protein-protein interactions, proteomics, and transcriptomics. Different variants have distinctive spectral properties – for example, Cyanine dye 7 (Cy7) has a strong absorption peak at 747nm while Cyanine dye 5.5 (Cy5.5) has a strong absorption peak at 675nm. Lightning-Link Cy Antibody Labeling kits are highly-controlled, sophisticated yet fast conjugation systems that simplify immunoassay techniques (Western blotting, ELISA, and immunohistochemistry). The cyanine antibody  was employed to compare the performance and reliability of fluorescent-linked...


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