Antibody News

FOXO1/FKHR (fork head in Rhabdomyosarcoma)

Thursday, February 26, 2015 - 15:00

FOXO1 belongs to the very large Forkhead family of transcription factors which contain a conserved distinct DNA-binding domain known as the Forkhead Box, or FOX. The Forkhead domain is a 100 amino acid long motif capable of binding and bending DNA, and is also known as a “winged helix”. Forkhead family members are involved in a very diverse and wide range of physiological processes from cell cycle, apoptosis, and oxidative-stress resistance. The “O” class of proteins in particular are all regulated by the insulin/PI3K/AKT pathway. The 70 kD FOXO1 protein can act as either a coactivator or a corepressor of nuclear receptor activity. This activity is mediated through a LXXLL motif within the C-terminus of FOXO1. While the specific function of FOXO1 has not yet been determined, it appears to play a role in myogenic growth and differentiation, and translocation of this gene with PAX3 has been associated with alveolar...

Factor VIII - a key factor in the clotting process

Wednesday, February 25, 2015 - 14:36

Hemostasis, or blood clotting, follows tissue injury and involves the deployment of essential plasma procoagulants (such as prothrombin, and Factors X, IX, V, and VIII) that trigger the blood coagulation cascade. This cascade leads to the formation of insoluble fibrin clots and the promotion of platelet aggregation. Defects in Factor VIII and the coagulation cascade result in hemophilia A, a common recessive X-linked coagulation disorder. This disease is characterized by uncontrolled bleeding into joints, muscles, and soft tissues. Factor VIII is a 2,351 amino acid, non-covalent heterodimer that circulates as an inactive procofactor. When catalyzed by thrombin, Factor VIII is converted to its active form known as Factor VIIIa, which then associates with and is a cofactor for Factor IXa. In the presence of Ca2+ and phospholipids, Factor IXa converts Factor X to the activated form Factor Xa. These events are but small links within the larger coagulation signaling cascade...

P2Y2 (P2Y purinoceptor 2, ATP receptor)

Monday, February 23, 2015 - 15:11

The protein P2Y2 is a G-protein coupled metabotropic receptor that belongs to a larger family consisting of several receptor subtypes that each has a different pharmacological selectivity for various adenosine and uridine nucleotides. (This selectivity overlaps in some cases). The P2Y2 receptor is responsive to both adenosine and uridine nucleotides and thus a receptor for both ATP and UTP. P2Y2 plays a role in the activation of a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger cascade system which regulates a wide range of physiological and pathological cell processes. For example, P2Y2 appears to control cell cycling in endometrial carcinoma cells, and act as a morphogen receptor for potentiating neurotrophin signaling in neuronal development and regeneration. P2Y2 is localized to the cell membrane and is widely expressed in mammals, as it can be found in the spleen, testis, kidney, liver, lung, heart, bone, and brain. Three transcript variants...

CD20 (Cluster of differentiation 20, Membrane-spanning 4-domains subfamily A member 1 (MS4A1), CVID5, B-lymphocyte surface antigen B1)

Wednesday, February 18, 2015 - 14:47

CD20 is a human B-lymphocyte surface molecule that spans the membrane four times and is expressed on both normal and malignant cells. The CD20 antigen displays a unique expression pattern among hematopoietic cells - it is present on human pre B-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes at all stages of maturation (except for plasma cells). Low CD20 antigen expression levels have been detected on normal T-lymphocytes. It functions as a B-cell activation receptor and B-lymphocyte development and differentiation agent, presumably through modulating intracellular calcium levels. The anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (mAb) rituximab (RTX) was the first chimeric mAb approved for therapy.

CD20 western blot

Western Blot: CD20 Antibody

Expression and biochemistry studies with the...

SOX2 - a stem cell transcription factor

Monday, February 16, 2015 - 15:15

The SOX gene family encodes a group of highly conserved transcription factors defined by the presence of a conserved high motility group (HMG) DNA-binding domain. They are involved in embryonic development regulation and cell fate determination. All SOX proteins have a single HMG box and bind linear DNA in a sequence-specific manner, resulting in the bending of DNA through large angles. This bending opens the DNA helix for some distance, which may affect the binding and interactions of other transcription factors. SOX1, SOX2 and SOX3 show the closest homology to SRY, with their maximum homology within the HMG domain. These three proteins are expressed mainly in the developing nervous system.

SOX2 antibody western blot

Western blotting with the SOX2 antibody by Seo's group at...

JAMP (JNK1/MAPK8 associated membrane protein)

Friday, February 13, 2015 - 14:21

JAMP is a seven-transmembrane protein that is a regulator of JNK/MAPK8 activity in response to various stress stimuli. This regulation is part of a broader collective and coordinated response to clearing misfolded proteins from the ER. JAMP facilitates the degradation of misfolded ER luminal proteins via recruitment of the ERAD (endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation system). Aside from its interactions with MAPK8, JAMP also interacts with Ring finger protein 5 (RNF5), as well as many regulatory proteins in the ERAD such as AMFR/GP78, CANX, PSMC1/PSMC2 and PSMC5-8. JAMP undergoes a post-translational modification after ubiquitination by RNF5 in a UBE2N-dependent manner, which ultimately decreases its association with the proteasome and ERAD. JAMP is expressed in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of cells within many tissues such as brain, spleen, thymus, liver, kidney...

Caspase 11: A novel non-canonical inflammasomes

Thursday, February 12, 2015 - 15:23

Cell death via apoptosis is a key cellular function triggered by the cell death receptor family and their ligands. This regulated process then transmits downstream signals through adaptor molecules ending with the caspase cysteine proteases. Caspase 11 has a heterotetrameric structure consisting of two anti-parallel heterodimers. Upon activation, it is cleaved by an autocatalytic mechanism to give rise to individual subunits. This post-translational regulation enables rapid activation. Expression levels of caspase 11 are highest in lung and spleen. This protein plays a role in apoptosis, cell migration, and the inflammatory response.

Caspase 11 antibody

Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence: Caspase 11 Antibody

Data published in Nature from Kayagaki's group at Genentech...

Notch1 - A multifunctional transmembrane receptor

Wednesday, February 11, 2015 - 15:18

Notch1 is a member of the Notch family of Type 1 single-pass transmembrane proteins that share an extracellular domain of multiple epidermal growth factor-like (EGF) repeats. Notch family members play key roles in a variety of developmental processes via the regulation of cell fate. These processes include cell-fate determination, proliferation, and cell contact-dependent signaling. In Drosophila, notch interaction with its cell-bound ligands (delta, serrate) establishes a key development intercellular signaling pathway. The Notch signaling network is an evolutionarily conserved intercellular pathway that regulates interactions between physically adjacent cells. Activation of Notch1 triggers cleavage of the cytoplasmic domain in the trans-Golgi network and releases its intracellular domain (NICD) which is then free to form the RBPJ/RBPSUH complex which in turn influences transcription of downstream target genes. Because the majority of Notch1 ligands are transmembrane...

Interleukin 33 (IL-33) - A dual function cytokine

Monday, February 9, 2015 - 14:43

IL-33 is a member of the interleukin family of cytokines that regulates a wide variety of cellular functions. Its receptor is ST2, an IL-1 receptor family member that also acts as a negative regulator of TLR-IL-1R signaling and the IL-1R accessory protein (IL-1RAcP). Receptor binding of IL-33 activates NF-kB and MAP kinases, stimulating downstream expression of TH2-associated cytokines such as IL-4, IL-5 and IL-6. Prolonged IL-33 treatment in mice leads to the development of eosinophilia, splenomegaly, and severe pathological changes in mucosal organs. IL-33 has been shown to co-localize with heterochromatin and possesses transcriptional repressor activities, suggesting that it may function as both a proinflammatory cytokine as well as an intracellular nuclear factor with transcriptional regulatory properties.

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Beta-defensin-3: I may be small but I'm powerful!

Friday, February 6, 2015 - 14:54

Beta-defensin 3 is a novel, non-hemolytic antimicrobial cationic peptide originally isolated from human lesional psoriatic scales and keratinocyte clones. It is a very small (2-6 kD) yet potent salt-insensitive broad spectrum antimicrobial that targets many pathogenic microbes such as multiresistant S. aureus, vancomyosin-resistant Enterococcus faecium, Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, fungi, and enveloped viruses. The family of mammalian defensins are classified into alpha, beta and theta based on their size and pattern of disulfide bonding and all contain a six-cysteine motif that forms three intra-molecular disulfide bonds. Keratinocytes and airway epithelial cells are the primary cellular sources of beta-defensin-3. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) and bacterial contact both induce beta-defensin-3 mRNA expression. It appears to be important in the innate epithelial defense of infections by various microorganisms that are present in skin and lung....

Understanding the relationship between NUT and BET proteins in NMC

Thursday, February 5, 2015 - 15:34

NUT has been found to fuse with bromodomain-containing proteins 3 and 4 (BRD3 and BRD4) in NUT midline carcinoma (NMC), a very rare, extremely aggressive, and genetically defined human cancer. NMC has recently been designated as a sub classification of poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. In the majority of NMCs (~75%), most of the coding sequence is fused to form chimeric genes that encode BRD-NUT fusion proteins. This simple chromosomal translocation results in elevated NUT overexpression and is sufficient for malignancy. The actual structure and function of the NUT protein is still unclear.

IHC NUT antibody

Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: NUT Antibody 

A case report of...

VEGFR-2 - A highly active kinase

Wednesday, February 4, 2015 - 14:10

VEGFR-2 is a family member of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family of membrane receptor tyrosine kinases. It is a key regulator of the process of angiogenesis that takes place during fundamental developmental processes such as embryogenesis, skeletal growth, and reproductive functions. Like other growth factor receptors, upon ligand binding, VEGFR2 dimerizes and is autophosphorylated on multiple tyrosine residues. These sites are multifunctional- they can regulate kinase activity, or serve as binding sites for adapters (such as SH2) or other signaling proteins. The phosphorylation of tyrosines 1054 and 1059 in the activation loop are required for VEGFR2. The VEGF signaling pathway is heavily implicated in conditions of pathological angiogenesis like those found in tumors and intraocular neovascular disorders. Thus, antibodies to the components of the VEGF system have been extensively used to characterize...

PABP: A central regulator of mRNA translation

Monday, February 2, 2015 - 14:33

PABP is found complexed to the 3-prime poly(A) tail of eukaryotic mRNA and is required for poly(A) shortening, translation initiation, and possibly mRNA export and import. In humans, PABPs are small nuclear isoforms within a conserved gene family of at least 3 functional proteins: PABP1 (PABPC1), inducible PABP (iPABP, or PABPC4), and PABP3 (PABPC3). PABPs are of special interest because due to their high affinity for A-rich mRNA sequences, they are involved in all mRNA-dependent events. Not surprisingly, they interact with a wide variety of proteins and are important to study because RNA-binding proteins are the foundation for proper mRNA function and organization within the cell.

PABP antibody

Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence: PABP Antibody

The...

Ep-CAM: Roles in cancer

Friday, January 30, 2015 - 15:06

Ep-CAM is a monomeric transmembrane glycoprotein that is found exclusively on every epithelial cell membrane and a variety of epithelial carcinomas and cancer-initiating cells. It mediates calcium-independent cell-cell adhesion. Because Ep-CAM is overexpressed in a variety of human carcinomas it is both a valuable marker as well as a potential therapeutic target for human solid tumors. The adhesion properties of this molecule marker are dependent upon its two epidermal growth factor-like repeats within its extracellular domain coupled with a cysteine-poor region. Experiments with the EpCAM antibody were published in Nature Cell Biology by Maetzel’s group where they analyzed both in vitro and in vivo signaling by EpCAM1. Their results shed light on the role of EpCAM nuclear signaling in proliferation. Albarenque et al used the EpCAM antibody to clarify the role of mesenchymal...

TNF alpha - a multifunctional proinflammatory cytokine

Thursday, January 29, 2015 - 15:29

TNF alpha is a multifunctional proinflammatory cytokine that is part of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily. It is mainly secreted by macrophages and causes tumor necrosis when injected into tumor -earing mice. It exists as a multimer of two, three, or five noncovalently linked units. TNF alpha is closely related to the 25kD Tumor Necrosis Factor beta (TNF beta, or lymphotoxin), and both proteins share the same receptors and cellular functions. TNF alpha binds and functions through the TNFRSF1A/TNFR1 and TNFRSF1B/TNFBR receptors. It is involved in the regulation of a wide spectrum of biological processes - cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, lipid metabolism, and coagulation. TNF alpha has been implicated in a variety of conditions, including autoimmune diseases, insulin resistance, and cancer.

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A New Standard in Antibody Testing - Simple Western Certified Antibodies

Wednesday, January 28, 2015 - 14:36

The Western blot is one of the most commonly used antibody assay techniques in cell and molecular biology research since its development over three decades ago, and is considered the gold standard for protein detection and quantification. The traditional Western blot can be a labor-intensive and time-consuming process, leading many researchers to seek an alternative method that is more efficient, reproducible and quantitative.

Simple Western is a capillary-based, fully automated western blotting system, created by our sister company ProteinSimple®, which is a mess-free and hands off alternative to the traditional Western blot. It is a true walk away system that produces more reproducible and quantitative results.

Novus Biologicals and R&D Systems has begun certification of our antibody product line using Simple Western platforms.  With over 500 antibodies certified so far, you can be sure to see Simple...

CRLF2 - a receptor for thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP)

Tuesday, January 27, 2015 - 15:16

CRLF2 has been reported as an important factor that drives dendritic cell maturation and activation. It was originally shown to participate in the positive selection of regulatory T-cells, maintenance of peripheral CD4+ T-cell homeostasis, and induction of CD4+ T cell-mediated allergic reactions. CRLF2 binds to its receptor with low-affinity; high-affinity binding is facilitated by the presence of IL-7R-alpha to form a functional heteromeric complex. This protein is also capable of supporting the growth of fetal liver and adult B-cell progenitors. CRLF2 is now known to have wide-ranging roles not just in these hematopoietic cell lineages, but also in multiple disease states within multiple organ systems.

western blot CRLF2 antibody

Western Blot: TSLP R/CRLF2 Antibody 

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CCR2 or CD192

Monday, January 26, 2015 - 15:00

CCR2 is a receptor for several monocyte chemoattractant proteins (MCP1, MCP3, MCP4) that specifically govern monocyte chemotaxis. CCR2 transduces its downstream signals through increasing intracellular calcium ion levels. For example, MCP1 regulates the monocyte infiltration found in inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid or the cellular inflammatory response to tumors. CCR2 is also an alternative co-receptor with CD4 for HIV1 infection. CCR2 exists in two isoforms and has been found to be expressed in a wide variety of tissues - blood, brain, heart, kidney, liver, lung, ovary, pancreas, spinal cord, spleen, and thymus.

western blot CCR2 Antibody

Hart et al used the CCR2 antibody in their immunological...

NALP6 - plays a critical role in suppressing inflammation and tumorigenesis

Friday, January 23, 2015 - 14:45

NALP6 belongs to the NLRP family of which function as innate sensors of endogenous and exogenous stress and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). NLRPs are vital components of the inflammasome which is the cytoplasmic multiprotein complex that coordinates inflammation and cell homeostasis in various type of cells/tissues. NALP6 is one of the newest NLR protein family members and is highly expressed in intestinal epithelium and granulocytes, and to a relatively lower level in T-cells. NALP6 behaves as an arginine-vasopressin V2 receptor and has been suggested to contribute to AVP-mediated regulation of renal salt-water balance, glucose and lipid metabolism, apoptosis, and the cell cycle.

IHC-P NALP6 Antibody

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Trex1 (3'-5' exonuclease TREX1, DNase III)

Thursday, January 22, 2015 - 12:14

This gene encodes the major 3' to 5' DNA exonuclease in human cells. The protein is a non-processive exonuclease that appears to provide proofreading for checkpoint signaling after DNA damage in response to oxidative stress and apoptosis. It is ubiquitously expressed. Trex1 binds to single-stranded DNA coated with replication protein A found at sites of DNA damage, and recruits the ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3 related protein (ATR) checkpoint kinase. This gene uses two different open reading frames. The upstream ORF encodes proteins which interact with ATR and localize to the intranuclear foci induced by DNA damage. The downstream ORF encodes proteins with 3' to 5' exonuclease activity and may be a subunit of human DNA polymerase III.

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PPAR gamma - An important target in human metabolism

Monday, January 19, 2015 - 15:02

Peroxisome proliferators are non-genotoxic carcinogens which are purported to exert their effect on cells by interacting with members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily known as peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs). There are four of these nuclear hormone receptors known to date, and they are ligand-dependent intracellular proteins that stimulate downstream gene transcription of genes such as acyl coenzyme A oxidase and cytochrome P450 (CYP450). Activation occurs through direct binding to specific DNA response elements following activation by an appropriate ligand. PPARs have pleiotropic effects upon a wide range of cellular functions including vascular tone, inflammation and energy homeostasis. Because of this, PPARs are important targets to consider in therapies for hypertension, obesity, and metabolic syndromes.

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Albumin - a family of globular protein

Friday, January 16, 2015 - 09:56

Albumin is a soluble and globular monomeric protein encoded by chromosome 4 that comprises about half of the protein found in blood serum. It functions as a carrier protein for steroids, fatty acids, and thyroid hormones as well as stabilizing extracellular fluid volume. Gene mutations result in various anomalous proteins. Albumin is synthesized in the liver as a preproalbumin with an N-terminal peptide that is removed before the nascent protein is released from the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This product, known as proalbumin, is in turn cleaved in the Golgi to generate the final, secreted albumin form. A paper monitoring the regulation of brain amyloid-beta levels by insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1) was published in Nature Medicine with the usage of the albumin antibody (1).

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SHARP1 - An enhancer-of-split- and hairy-related protein

Wednesday, January 14, 2015 - 15:23

SHARP1 encodes a transcription repressor factor that belongs to the Hairy/Enhancer of the Split subfamily of basic helix-loop-helix factors (bHLH). Sequence alignment shows that SHARP1 is only distantly related to these proteins with a 37-42% sequence identity within its bHLH domain. Unlike most other bHLH proteins, SHARP-1 is not expressed in neuronal progenitor cells or early differentiating neurons but is instead restricted to neuronal subset within the postnatal central nervous system (CNS). SHARP1 appears to play a regulatory role in the clockwork system integrating with Clock and Bmal1. Mutations in this gene (designated hDEC2-P385R) are associated with short sleep phenotypes in both humans and mice, resulting in elevated levels of vigilance time and concomitant decreases in sleep time.

IHC SHARP1 antibody

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BrDU (Bromodeoxyuridine)

Wednesday, January 14, 2015 - 12:02

The thymidine synthetic nucleoside analogue bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) has a long, colorful history of repeated use in molecular and cytokinetic studies, as detailed in reviews by Vanderlaan and Dolbeare (1,2).  Because BrDU is only incorporated into newly synthesized DNA in actively replicating S-phase cells, it allows for accurate and comprehensive quantitation of the pattern, rate, and progression of cell proliferation. Data such as DNA-synthesis kinetics, cell fraction in S-phase, and the construction of dynamic proliferation profiles (with variables such as S-phase transit rate and potential doubling time) via bivariate BrdU/DNA flow cytometry analyses and/or microscopy can also be collected. Cells may be labeled in vitro or in vivo with this analogue, and is extremely valuable in detecting proliferation in tissues not easily accessible to other assay types (ie the brain).

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CD73 (Cluster of differentiation 73, ecto-5'-nucleotidase)

Wednesday, January 14, 2015 - 09:47

CD73 is a 70kD glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored cell surface molecule that belongs to the 5'-nucleosidase family. It hydrolyzes extracellular nucleotides into membrane permeable nucleosides and is found as both a membrane-bound and soluble molecule. Because it is abundantly expressed on vascular endothelium and some lymphocyte subpopulations, CD73 is a useful lymphocyte differentiation marker. Like many other GPI-anchored molecules, it transmits T-cell activation signals upon ligand engagement. CD73 functions as a co-stimulatory molecule in human T-cells for both proliferation and activation, and also appears to modulate lymphocyte adhesion. Furthermore, the ecto-5'-nucleotidase activity itself is an important mediator of anti-inflammation because it converts extracellular AMP into adenosine which is a potent anti-inflammatory trigger. 

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