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VEGF is homodimeric, disulfide-linked glycoprotein cytokine that serves as the ligand for FLT1 (VEGFR-1 receptor) and FLK1 (VEGFR-2 receptor) tyrosine kinases. It is a key modulator of physiological angiogenesis, vasculogenesis, and endothelial cell growth during basic developmental processes such as...

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Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) belongs to the family of Toll-like receptors (TLR), and plays a main role in pathogen recognition and innate immunity system activation. The TLR family members are highly conserved proteins that all contain a high degree of structural and functional homology in organisms from Drosophila all the way up to humans. TLRs regulate the cellular cytokine production...

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