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Atg9 is the only essential transmembrane protein involved in cellular autophagy. Autophagy regulates cellular homeostasis by allowing the turnover and recycling of misfolded proteins and damaged organelles. Formation of the double-membrane isolation membrane that forms the pre-autophagosome requires the contribution of highly mobile cytoplasmic vesicles containing Atg9. These vesicles are...

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Microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain 3 (LC3/LC3B) is a ubiquitin-like protein involved in the formation of the autophagosome. It is homologous to the yeast Atg8 protein. Autophagosomes are important for the degradation and recycling of intracellular cargo such as misfolded proteins or damaged organelles. Upon induction of autophagy, LC3 is conjugated to the lipid...

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