Cell death is a process that can either be regulatory or as a result to an external stress on a system of the body. There are three types of cell death: necrosis, apoptosis, and autophagy. Necrosis occurs when the cells are affected by external factors, which can include infections, heat, toxic chemicals, alcohol, and dehydration. The regulation of this activity is maintained by caspases. These factors will either physically destroy the cells or deprive them of the materials that are necessary for survival. Apoptosis is a form of programmed cell death, which can be either a developmental process or a response from the human immune system. The regulation of programmed cell death is mediated by several proteins including RPR, HID, GRIM, and the YihE protein kinase that all work to initiate pathways that lead to the activation of the cell-destroying caspases. The negative regulation of apoptosis is done by the blocking of the Fas receptor or introduction of a caspase-3 inhibitor. Autophagy is the degradation of organelles inside the cell by lysosomal machinery, and can help with regulating cellular energy levels. The negative regulation of autophagy is maintained with the continuous activation of the mTOR pathway, which is done so by sensing proper cellular levels of growth factors, amino acids, oxygen, and energy. The negative regulation of cell death is necessary to ensure that too many cells are not destroyed, for if they are serious diseases and disorders could arise such as those associated with neurodegeneration. The induction of programmed cell death is currently being studied as a treatment for several diseases including cancer, and recent publications show cannabinoids to be factors that induce cell death in cancerous cells, while leaving normal cells alone.
Regulation Of Cell Death Bioinformatics Tool
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