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Autophagic Cell Death Pathway Bioinformatics

Autophagy is a mechanism that causes the degradation of unnecessary or dysfunctional cellular components with the use of lysosomal machinery. Autophagy can be used to regulate cellular energy levels and the recycling of cellular components. In certain diseases, autophagy works to inhibit the proliferation of dangerous cells in a process known as autophagic cell death. The cell death is not fully caused by autophagy, however, and most cases are termed cell death with autophagy. This is because some scientists believe that the autophagic mechanisms that occur during cell death may actually be a survival attempt rather than a method of destroying cells. In cases of autophagic cell death, there is an absence of chromatin condensation but the early degradation of organelles causes cytoplasmic vacuolization. There is no tissue inflammatory response, as is seen in other types of cell death. Autophagic cell death may be an important method of destroying dangerous cells in diseases such as cancer, but more research must be conducted to fully understand the mechanism and initiation of this function.

Autophagic Cell Death Bioinformatics Tool

Laverne is a handy bioinformatics tool to help facilitate scientific exploration of related genes, diseases and pathways based on co-citations. Explore more on Autophagic Cell Death below! For more information on how to use Laverne, please read the How to Guide.
Vizit™, under license from BioVista Inc.

Top Research Reagents

We have 1714 products for the study of the Autophagic Cell Death Pathway that can be applied to Chromatin Immunoprecipitation, Western Blot, Flow Cytometry, Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence, Immunohistochemistry, Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) from our catalog of antibodies and ELISA kits.

NB500-249
Western Blot: Beclin 1/ATG6 Antibody [NB500-249] - WB analysis of Belclin1. Lane 1 human brain and Lane 2 mouse brain.Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence: Beclin 1/ATG6 Antibody [NB500-249] - Beclin 1 antibody was tested in HeLa cells with Dylight 488 (green). Nuclei and alpha-tubulin were counterstained with DAPI (blue) and Dylight 550 (red).

Rabbit Polyclonal
Species Human, Mouse, Rat
Applications WB, Simple Western, ICC/IF

     5 Reviews

73 Publications
NB100-240
Western Blot: TOR/mTOR Antibody [NB100-240] - Detection of Human mTOR by Western Blot. Samples: Whole cell lysate (50, 15, 5 ug) from HeLa, and (50 ug) 293T cells prepared using NETN lysis buffer. Antibody: Affinity purified rabbit anti-mTOR antibody NB100-240 used for WB at 0.1 ug/ml. Detection: Chemiluminescence with an exposure time of 3 minutes.Western Blot: TOR/mTOR Antibody [NB100-240] - Whole cell lysate from HeLa (5, 15 and 50 ug for WB; 1 mg for IP, 20% of IP loaded) and 293T (T; 50 ug) cells.   Affinity purified rabbit anti-mTOR antibody used for WB at 0.4 ug/ml (A) used for IP at 3 ug/mg lysate. mTOR was also immunoprecipitated by a previous lot of this antibody and by rabbit anti-mTOR antibodies NB100-241 and NB100-58821.  For blotting immunoprecipitated mTOR, NB100-58821 was used at 1 ug/ml. Detection: Chemiluminescence with exposure times of 30 seconds (A) and 3 minutes (B).

Rabbit Polyclonal
Species Human, Rat
Applications WB, ICC/IF, IHC

5 Publications
NB100-2331
Western Blot: LC3A Antibody [NB100-2331] - WB analysis of heart tissue lysates from mice which were subjected or not to 48 hours of starvation. The signal was developed using ECL method and this LC3 antibody was found to detect both forms of LC3, i.e. LC3-I and LC3-II. As expected, the levels of LC3-II form were higher in the heart tissue lysates from starved mice. The bottom image is of the coomassie blue staining.Western Blot: LC3A Antibody [NB100-2331] - Detection of HRP conjugated autophagic LC3 in mouse ES cell lysate. The atg5-/- lane (ES cells, cultured to form embryonic bodies, that are deficient in conversion of LC3-1 to LC3-11) demonstrates the specificity of NB 100-2331, as there is no detection of LC3-11. Photo courtesy of Dr. Beth Levine, UT Southwestern Medical Center.

Rabbit Polyclonal
Species Human, Mouse, Rat
Applications WB, Simple Western, ELISA

     17 Reviews

193 Publications
NB100-56098
Western Blot: Bcl-2 Antibody [NB100-56098] - Analysis of Bcl-2 in whole cell lysate from Daoy cells. Cells were transfected with scrambled control siRNA (lane 1) or Bcl-2 siRNA (lane2). Image from verified customer review.Western Blot: Bcl-2 Antibody [NB100-56098] - WB analysis of whole cell lysate (WCL) of Jurkat cells using anti-Bcl-2 antibody (NB100-56098) at 1:1000 dilution. HRP conjugated goat anti-rabbit IgG (H+L) cross adsorbed secondary antibody was used with ECL substrate for the detection of Bcl2 antibody bound to the blotted protein. This Bcl2 antibody detected a specific band at expected molecular weight marker position of Bcl2 protein (26kDa).

Rabbit Polyclonal
Species Human, Mouse, Canine
Applications WB, IHC, IHC-P

     2 Reviews

6 Publications
NB100-56708
Western Blot: Caspase-3 Antibody (31A1067) - (Pro and Active) [NB100-56708] - Western Blot Image of anti-Caspase 3 (31A1067).  Whole cell protein from Jurkat cells treated with and without 2 uM staurosporine as indicated was separated on a 4-15% gel by SDS-PAGE, transferred to 0.2 um PVDF membrane and blocked in 5% non-fat milk in TBST.  The membrane was probed with 5 ug/ml anti-Caspase 3 in 1% milk, and detected with an anti-mouse HRP secondary antibody using a Femto sensitivity chemiluminescence reagent.  Note the detection of both pro-caspase 3 at 35 kDa and the cleaved active caspase 3 at 15-17 kDa.Western Blot: Caspase-3 Antibody (31A1067) - (Pro and Active) [NB100-56708] - Analysis using Azide/BSA FREE version of NB100-56708. Analysis of Caspase-3 in A) RAW and B) NIH 3T3 using 32 ug/ml.

Mouse Monoclonal
Species Human, Mouse, Rat
Applications WB, Simple Western, EM

     1 Review

112 Publications
NB100-56749
Western Blot: AKT1 [p Ser473] Antibody (104A282) [NB100-56749] - Akt1 [p Ser473] Antibody (104A282) [NB100-56749] - Total protein from mouse 3T3 cells treated with and without PDGF (50 ng/ml) for the indicated times was separated on a 7.5% gel by SDS-PAGE, transferred to PVDF membrane and blocked in 5% non-fat milk in TBST. The membrane was probed with 2.0 ug/ml anti-AKT1 (NBP2-01725) and 2 ug/ml pS473 AKT1 in 1% BSA in TBST and detected with an anti-mouse HRP secondary antibody using chemiluminescence. Note the detection of phosphorylated AKT1 in response to PDGF treatment compared to total AKT1 protein.Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: AKT1 [p Ser473] Antibody (104A282) [NB100-56749] - IHC analysis of a formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) human breast carcinoma tissue section using 1:250 dilution of pSer473 AKT1 antibody (clone 104A282) on a Bond Rx autostainer (Leica Biosystems). The assay involved 20 minutes of heat induced antigen retrieval (HIER) with 10mM sodium citrate buffer (pH 6.0) and endogenous peroxidase quenching using peroxide block. The sections were incubated with primary antibody for 30 minutes. Bond Polymer Refine Detection (Leica Biosystems) and DAB were used for signal detection which followed counterstaining with hematoxylin. Whole slide scanning and capturing of representative images (20X) were performed using Aperio AT2 (Leica Biosystems). This antibody generated a diffused cytoplasmic staining of phosphor-AKT (Ser-473) in the cancer cells as well as the stromal cells. Some cancer cells depicted nuclear stianing also. Staining was performed by Histowiz.

Mouse Monoclonal
Species Human, Mouse
Applications WB, IHC, IHC-P

     1 Review

8 Publications
NB110-53818
Western Blot: ATG5 Antibody [NB110-53818] - Total protein from Human HeLa and A431 and Mouse MEF cells was separated on a 7.5% gel by SDS-PAGE, transferred to PVDF membrane and blocked in 5% non-fat milk in TBST. The membrane was probed with 2.0 ug/ml anti-ATG5 in 1% non-fat milk in TBST and detected with an anti-rabbit HRP secondary antibody using chemiluminescence.Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence: ATG5 Antibody [NB110-53818] - HeLa cells were fixed for 10 minutes using 10% formalin and then permeabilized for 5 minutes using 1X TBS + 0.5% Triton-X100. The cells were incubated with anti-ATG5 [NB110-53818] at a 1:200 dilution overnight at 4C and detected with an anti-rabbit Dylight 488 (Green) at a 1:500 dilution. Alpha tubulin (DM1A) NB100-690 was used as a co-stain at a 1:1000 dilution and detected with an anti-mouse Dylight 550 (Red) at a 1:500 dilution. Nuclei were counterstained with DAPI (Blue). Cells were imaged using a 40X objective.

Rabbit Polyclonal
Species Human, Mouse, Rat
Applications WB, Simple Western, Flow

     4 Reviews

133 Publications
NB200-103
Western Blot: p53 Antibody (PAb 240) [NB200-103] - WB analysis of p53 in MCF7 and HeLa lystates. Image courtesy of anonymous customer product review.Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence: p53 Antibody (PAb 240) [NB200-103] - HeLa cells were fixed for 10 minutes using 10% formalin and then permeabilized for 5 minutes using 1X TBS + 0.5% Triton-X100. The cells were incubated with anti-p53 (PAb 240) [NB200-103] at a 1:200 dilution overnight at 4C and detected with an anti-mouse Dylight 488 (Green) at a 1:500 dilution. Actin was detected with Phalloidin 568 (Red) at a 1:200 dilution. Nuclei were counterstained with DAPI (Blue). Cells were imaged using a 40X objective.

Mouse Monoclonal
Species Human, Mouse, Rat
Applications WB, ELISA, Flow

     2 Reviews

22 Publications
NB100-56104
Western Blot: Bcl-xL Antibody [NB100-56104] - Analysis of Bcl-xL in Daoy whole cell lysate using anti-Bcl-xL antibody. Image from verified customer review.Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: Bcl-Xl Antibody [NB100-56104] - Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections of human epidermis stained for Bcl-X expression using this antibody at the bottom of the images were negative for Bcl-X expression. The adjacent stratum spinosum and middle stratum granulosum layers were both very positive for Bcl-X expression. The top stratum corneum consisting mainly of dead or peeling cells were both negative for Bcl-X expression.

Rabbit Polyclonal
Species Human, Mouse, Rat
Applications WB, IHC, IHC-Fr

     1 Review

1 Publication
NBP1-28566
Western Blot: Bax Antibody (6A7) [NBP1-28566] - Total cell lysates from NIH/3T3 cells were resolved by electrophoresis, transferred to PVDF membrane, and probled with Mouse Anti-Bax UNLB.  Immunohistochemistry-Frozen: Bax Antibody (6A7) [NBP1-28566] - Mouse retina with no pretreatment

Mouse Monoclonal
Species Human, Mouse, Rat
Applications WB, ELISA, Flow

     3 Reviews

2 Publications
MAB6608
Western blot shows lysates of HeLa human cervical epithelial carcinoma cell line and HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line. PVDF membrane was probed with 2 µg/mL of Mouse Anti-Human ATG7 Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB6608) followed by HRP-conjugated Anti-Mouse IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # <A class=NoLineLink href=ATG7 was detected in formalin fixed paraffin-embedded sections of human brain (cortex) using Mouse Anti-Human ATG7 Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB6608) at 15 µg/mL overnight at 4 °C. Before incubation with the primary antibody, tissue was subjected to heat-induced epitope retrieval using Antigen Retrieval Reagent-Basic (Catalog # <A class=NoLineLink href=

Mouse Monoclonal
Species Human, Mouse
Applications WB, Simple Western, IHC

     1 Review

1 Publication
NBP1-84297
Western Blot: PCBD1 Antibody [NBP1-84297] - Lane 1: Marker  [kDa] 230, 130, 95, 72, 56, 36, 28, 17, 11.  Lane 2: Human cell line RT-4.  Lane 3: Human cell line U-251MG spImmunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence: PCBD1 Antibody [NBP1-84297] - Immunofluorescent staining of human cell line U-2 OS shows localization to nucleoplasm.

Rabbit Polyclonal
Species Human
Applications WB, ICC/IF, IHC

MAB17761
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Mouse Monoclonal
Species Human, Mouse, Rat
Applications WB, ICC

     1 Review

2 Publications
NBP1-84463
Immunohistochemistry: DNAH5 Antibody [NBP1-84463] - Staining of human nasopharynx shows strong positivity in the cilia of respiratory epithelial cells.

Rabbit Polyclonal
Species Human
Applications IHC, IHC-P

3 Publications
NBP1-84466
Western Blot: DNAI1 Antibody [NBP1-84466] - Analysis in control (vector only transfected HEK293T lysate) and dNAI1 over-expression lysate (Co-expressed with a C-terminal myc-DDK tag (3.1 kDa) in mammalian HEK293T cells).Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence: DNAI1 Antibody [NBP1-84466] - Staining of human cell line U-251MG shows positivity in nucleus but not nucleoli and cytoplasm.

Rabbit Polyclonal
Species Human
Applications WB, ICC/IF, IHC

2 Publications
NBP2-29463
Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: p21/CIP1/CDKN1A Antibody (WA-1 (HJ21)) [NBP2-29463] - Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human bladder carcinoma stained with p21 Monoclonal Antibody (WA-1).

Mouse Monoclonal
Species Human, Mouse, Rat
Applications WB, Flow, ICC/IF

11 Publications
NB100-1595
Western Blot: Ribosomal Protein S6/RPS6 Antibody [NB100-1595] - Detection of Human RPS6 on HeLa whole cell lysate using NB100-1595. RPS6 was also immunoprecipitated using rabbit anti-RPS6 antibodies NB100-1594 and another RPS6 Ab.Immunohistochemistry: Ribosomal Protein S6/RPS6 Antibody [NB100-1595] - Sample: FFPE section of human lung carcinoma. Antibody: Affinity purified rabbit anti- RPS6 used at a dilution of 1:200 (1ug/ml). Detection: DAB

Rabbit Polyclonal
Species Human, Mouse
Applications WB, IHC, IHC-P

     1 Review

2 Publications
NBP2-22203
Western Blot: ERK1 Antibody (1E5) [NBP2-22203] - Western blot analysis of whole cell lysates from (1) MCF7 (2) NIH3T3 cell lines using ERK1 antibody (clone 1E5) at 1:1000 dilution. The signal was developed using HRP labeled goat-anti Mouse secondary antibody with ECL based detection. Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence: ERK1 Antibody (1E5) [NBP2-22203] - Analysis of NIH/3T3 cells using ERK1 mouse mAb (green). Blue: DRAQ5 fluorescent DNA dye. Red: Actin filaments have been labeled with Alexa Fluor-555 phalloidin.

Mouse Monoclonal
Species Human, Mouse, Rat
Applications WB, ELISA, Flow