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Intractable Epilepsy: Disease Bioinformatics

Epilepsy is defined as a diverse set of neurological disorders characterized by seizures. These seizures occur due to abnormal electrical activity in the brain. Factors that may lead to epilepsy include, but are not limited to, brain trauma, gene mutations, strokes, brain cancer, and extensive drug and alcohol use. Seizures occur due to a large release of glutamate, which causes a spread of excitation throughout the brain, which propagates the electrical signal and can lead to neuronal death. Intractable epilepsy, otherwise known as refractory epilepsy, is related to tuberous sclerosis as well as generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures. The HSPBAP1 gene is associated with this disease. Intractable epilepsy is categorized by a difficulty controlling seizures, which can stem from seizures that are too strong to be controlled by medication, or by an intolerance of medication. About 50 million people have epilepsy, with 80% of that population located in developing countries. It is possible to control epilepsy with medicine, but many cases, especially cases of intractable epilepsy, may require surgery in order to relieve symptoms.

Intractable Epilepsy Bioinformatics Tool

Laverne is a handy bioinformatics tool to help facilitate scientific exploration of related genes, diseases and pathways based on co-citations. Explore more on Intractable Epilepsy below! For more information on how to use Laverne, please read the How to Guide.
Vizit™, under license from BioVista Inc.

Top Research Reagents

We have 1736 products for the study of Intractable Epilepsy that can be applied to Flow Cytometry, Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence, Immunohistochemistry, Western Blot from our catalog of antibodies and ELISA kits.

NB600-607
Western Blot: TOR/mTOR [p Ser2448] Antibody [NB600-607] - Rapamycin reduces mTOR phosphorylation induced by TII. Whole-cell lysates were prepared from astrocytes activated with TII for 2 h. 10 nM Rapamycin was added at the beginning of the experiment and equal amounts of protein were analyzed by western blot for phosphorylated mTOR kinase (p-mTOR) (upper gel) and consequently for beta-actin (lower gel). Image collected and cropped by CiteAb from the following publication (http://jneuroinflammation.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1742-2094-8-1), licensed under a CC-BY licence.Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: TOR/mTOR [p Ser2448] Antibody [NB600-607] - Brown arrow= IBa1 positive cells, Green arrow= mTOR positive cells, Black arrow= mTOR and IBA1 positive cells. IHC-P Image submitted by a verified customer review.

Rabbit Polyclonal
Species Human, Rat
Applications WB, ELISA, IHC

     2 Reviews

9 Publications
NB300-213
Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence: MAP2 Antibody [NB300-213] - Mouse primary cultures stained with MAP2 antibody. ICC/IF image submitted by a verified customer review.Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence: MAP2 Antibody [NB300-213] - Immunofluorescent analysis of cortical neuron-glial cell culture from E20 rat stained with chicken pAb to microtubule associated protein 2 (MAP2), NB300-213, dilution 1:10,000 in red, and mouse mAb to MAP-tau, NPB2-25162, dilution 1:2,000, in green. The blue is DAPI staining of nuclear DNA. NB300-213 antibody stains dendrites and perikarya of neurons, while NBP2-25162 antibody labels neuronal perikarya, dendrites and also axonal process. As a result perikarya and dendrites appears orange-yellow, since they contain both MAP2 and tau, while axons are green.

Chicken Polyclonal
Species Human, Mouse, Rat
Applications WB, ICC/IF, IHC

     5 Reviews

73 Publications
NBP1-44270
Western Blot: SLC12A3 Antibody [NBP1-44270] - analysis of Rat tissue lysates showing detection of NCC protein using Rabbit Anti-NCC Polyclonal Antibody . Primary Antibody: Rabbit Anti-NCC Polyclonal Antibody at 1:1000.Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence: SLC12A3 Antibody [NBP1-44270] - Tissue: kidney tissue. Species: Rat. Primary Antibody: Rabbit Anti-NCC Polyclonal Antibody at 1:200. Secondary Antibody: FITC Goat Anti-Rabbit (green).

Rabbit Polyclonal
Species Mouse, Rat
Applications WB, EM, ICC/IF

1 Publication
NBP1-84881
Western Blot: CDKL5 Antibody [NBP1-84881] - Analysis in control (vector only transfected HEK293T lysate) and CDKL5 over-expression lysate (Co-expressed with a C-terminal myc-DDK tag (3.1 kDa) in mammalian HEK293T cells).Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence: CDKL5 Antibody [NBP1-84881] - Staining of human cell line A-431 shows localization to nucleoplasm. Antibody staining is shown in green.

Rabbit Polyclonal
Species Human
Applications WB, ICC/IF, IHC

1 Publication
NBP1-88191
Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: Carbonic Anhydrase I/CA1 Antibody [NBP1-88191] - Analysis in human rectum and pancreas tissues. Corresponding CA1 RNA-seq data are presented for the same tissues.Western Blot: Carbonic Anhydrase I/CA1 Antibody [NBP1-88191] - Comparative proteome analysis of 3xTg-AD and control samples at different stages of AD. Immunoblot analysis of most regulated hits. Soluble fractions of brain proteins were analyzed from four 2-month-old control and 3xTg-AD mice animals, respectively. Hebp1 and Glo1 levels were consistently elevated in the transgenic animals as compared to wild type controls. Ca1 levels were reduced in transgenic animals. Image collected and cropped by CiteAb from the following publication (https://elifesciences.org/articles/47498), licensed under a CC-BY licence.

Rabbit Polyclonal
Species Human, Mouse
Applications WB, IHC, IHC-P

3 Publications
NBP2-13415
Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence: TBC1D9 Antibody [NBP2-13415] - Staining of human cell line U-2 OS shows localization to nucleoplasm & cytosol.Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: TBC1D9 Antibody [NBP2-13415] - Staining of human testis shows moderate cytoplasmic positivity in cells in seminiferous ducts.

Rabbit Polyclonal
Species Human
Applications ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-P

NBP2-13426
Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: tescalcin Antibody [NBP2-13426] - Staining in human salivary gland and colon tissues using anti-TESC antibody. Corresponding TESC RNA-seq data are presented for the same tissues.Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence: tescalcin Antibody [NBP2-13426] - Staining of human cell line A549 shows localization to nucleoplasm & cytosol. Antibody staining is shown in green.

Rabbit Polyclonal
Species Human
Applications ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-P

NBP2-21598
Western Blot: ABAT Antibody [NBP2-21598] - Various tissue extracts (50 ug) were separated by 10% SDS-PAGE, and the membrane was blotted with ABAT antibody diluted at 1:10000. The HRP-conjugated anti-rabbit IgG antibody (NBP2-19301 was used to detect the primary antibody.Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence: ABAT Antibody [NBP2-21598] - HepG2 cells were fixed in ice-cold MeOH for 5 min. Green: ABAT protein stained by ABAT antibody diluted at 1:500. Blue: Hoechst 33342 staining.

Rabbit Polyclonal
Species Human, Mouse, Rat
Applications WB, ICC/IF, IHC

1 Publication
NB100-1533
Western Blot: POMC Antibody [NB100-1533] - Staining of NIH3T3 cell lysate with antibody at 0.3 ug/mL (A) and Rat Brain cell lysate with antibody at 2 ug/mL (B). 35 ug protein in RIPA buffer. Detected by chemiluminescence.Immunohistochemistry: POMC Antibody [NB100-1533] - Representative confocal images of POMC in POMC-transfected WT and Sel1L-/- N2a cells. White arrows point to POMC-containing secretory granules, while yellow arrows point to perinuclear POMC. KDEL marks the ER. Representative data from at least 2 independent experiments are shown. Image collected and cropped by CiteAb from the following publication (jci.org/articles/view/96420), licensed under a CC-BY licence.

Goat Polyclonal
Species Human, Mouse, Rat
Applications WB, Flow, ICC/IF

10 Publications
MAB40401
    Western  blot shows lysates of HEK293 human embryonic kidney cell line, HeLa human  cervical epithelial carcinoma cell line, Daudi human Burkitt's lymphoma cell  line, and NIH‑3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line. PVDF  membrane was probed with 1 µg/mL of Mouse Anti-Human/Mouse TSC2  Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB40401) followed by HRP-conjugated  Anti-Mouse IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # <a class=TSC2 was detected in immersion fixed HeLa human cervical epithelial carcinoma cell line using Mouse Anti-Human/Mouse TSC2  Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB40401) at 3 µg/mL for 3 hours at room temperature. Cells were stained using the NorthernLights™ 557-conjugated Anti-Mouse IgG Secondary Antibody (red; Catalog # <a class=

Mouse Monoclonal
Species Human, Mouse
Applications WB, IHC, ICC

     1 Review

D6050
 IL-6 [HRP] IL-6 [HRP]


Species Human
Applications ELISA

     32 Reviews

588 Publications
7954-GM/CF
Measured in a cell proliferation assay using TF-1 human erythroleukemic cells. The ED<sub>50</sub> for this effect is 6-30 pg/mL.


Species Human
Applications BA

1 Publication
NBP2-42388
Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: LAMC2 Antibody (CL2980) [NBP2-42388] - Staining in human fallopian tube and liver tissues. Corresponding LAMC2 RNA-seq data are presented for the same tissues.Western Blot: LAMC2 Antibody (CL2980) [NBP2-42388] - Analysis in A-431 cells transfected with control siRNA, target specific siRNA probe #1 and #2, using Anti-LAMC2 antibody. Remaining relative intensity is presented. Loading control: Anti-GAPDH.

Mouse Monoclonal
Species Human
Applications WB, ICC/IF, IHC

2 Publications
NBP2-46234
Western Blot: TSC1 Antibody (3A2) [NBP2-46234] - Analysis of HEK293T cells were transfected with the pCMV6-ENTRY control (Left lane) or pCMV6-ENTRY TSC1.Immunohistochemistry: TSC1 Antibody (3A2) [NBP2-46234] - Analysis of Adenocarcinoma of Human colon tissue. (Heat-induced epitope retrieval by 10mM citric buffer, pH6.0, 120C for 3min)

Mouse monoclonal
Species Human, Mouse, Rat
Applications WB, IHC

NB300-141
Immunohistochemistry: GFAP Antibody [NB300-141] - Analysis of a rat cerebellum section stained with rabbit polyclonal antibody to GFAP, NB300-141, dilution 1:5000 in green and mouse monoclonal antibody to MeCP2, dilution 1:500, in red. The blue is DAPI staining of nuclear DNA. Following transcardial perfusion of rat with 4% paraformaldehyde, brain was post fixed for 1 hour, cut to 45 uM, and free-floating sections were stained with above antibodies. The GFAP antibody stains the network of astrocytic cells and the processes of Bergmann glia in the molecular layer. The MeCP2 antibody specifically labels nuclei of certain neurons.Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence: GFAP Antibody [NB300-141] - Rat neurons stained with Neurofilament Heavy antibody NB300-217 (red) and GFAP antibody NB300-141 (green).

Rabbit Polyclonal
Species Human, Mouse, Rat
Applications WB, Simple Western, ICC/IF

     12 Reviews

79 Publications
NBP2-67667
Western Blot: MDR1/ABCB1 Antibody (SN06-42) [NBP2-67667] - Analysis of P Glycoprotein on mouse heart tissue lysates. Proteins were transferred to a PVDF membrane and blocked with 5% BSA in PBS for 1 hour at room temperature. The primary antibody (1/500) was used in 5% BSA at room temperature for 2 hours. Goat Anti-Rabbit IgG - HRP Secondary Antibody  at 1:200,000 dilution was used for 1 hour at room temperature.Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: MDR1/ABCB1 Antibody (SN06-42) [NBP2-67667] - Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded mouse brain tissue using anti-MDR1/ABCB1 antibody. The section was pre-treated using heat mediated antigen retrieval with Tris-EDTA buffer (pH 8.0-8.4) for 20 minutes. The tissues were blocked in 5% BSA for 30 minutes at room temperature, washed with ddH2O and PBS, and then probed with the primary antibody (1/50) for 30 minutes at room temperature. The detection was performed using an HRP conjugated compact polymer system. DAB was used as the chromogen. Tissues were counterstained with hematoxylin and mounted with DPX.

Rabbit Monoclonal
Species Human, Mouse, Rat
Applications WB, ICC/IF, IHC

     1 Review

1 Publication
NB110-96417
Immunohistochemistry: LRP2 Antibody (CD7D5) [NB110-96417] - Representative immunofluorescence stainings of control (Tead4m-z+) and Tead4 maternal/zygotic mutant (Tead4m-z-) embryos for Krt8 and Krt18 (16 cell stage embryos) and Lrp2 and Dab2 (32 to 64 cell stage embryos; Lrp2 and Dab2 were not detected in earlier stage embryos). n indicates total number of embryos analyzed. Scale bar: 25 um. Image collected and cropped by CiteAb from the following publication (elifesciences.org/articles/22906), licensed under a CC-BY licence.Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: LRP2 Antibody (CD7D5) [NB110-96417] - Staining (paraffin-embedded tissue-sections fixed in formalin) of Megalin in the brush border of the proximal tubule.

Mouse Monoclonal
Species Human, Mouse, Rat
Applications ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-Fr

     1 Review

15 Publications
H00023263-M01
Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: MCF2L Antibody (1D11) [H00023263-M01] - Analysis of monoclonal antibody to MCF2L on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human tonsil. Antibody concentration 1 ug/ml.Sandwich ELISA: MCF2L Antibody (1D11) [H00023263-M01] - Detection limit for recombinant GST tagged MCF2L is approximately 0.03ng/ml as a capture antibody.

Mouse Monoclonal
Species Human
Applications WB, ELISA, IHC

NBP2-92630
Western Blot: Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 Antibody [NBP2-92630] - Analysis of extracts of various cell lines, using Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 at 1:1000 dilution. Secondary antibody: HRP Goat Anti-Rabbit IgG (H+L) at 1:10000 dilution. Lysates/proteins: 25ug per lane. Blocking buffer: 3% nonfat dry milk in TBST. Detection: ECL Basic Kit . Exposure time: 60s.Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence: Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 Antibody [NBP2-92630] - Analysis of HeLa cells using Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 . Blue: DAPI for nuclear staining.

Rabbit Polyclonal
Species Human, Mouse, Rat
Applications WB, ICC/IF, IHC

NB400-156
Dual RNAscope ISH-IHC: MRP1 Antibody (IU2H10) [NB400-156] - Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections of human testis were probed for MRP1 mRNA (ACD RNAScope Probe, catalog # 435591; Fast Red chromogen, ACD catalog # 322360). Adjacent tissue section was processed for immunohistochemistry using mouse monoclonal  (Novus Biologicals catalog # NB400-156) at 7ug/mL with overnight incubation at 4 degrees Celsius followed by incubation with anti-mouse IgG VisUCyte HRP Polymer Antibody (Catalog # VC001) and DAB chromogen (yellow-brown). Tissue was counterstained with hematoxylin (blue). Specific staining was localized to Leydig cells and seminiferous tubule cells.Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence: MRP1 Antibody (IU2H10) [NB400-156] - The MRP-1 antibody was tested in HeLa cells at a 1:50 dilution against Dylight 488 (Green).  Alpha tubulin and nuclei were counterstained against Dylight 550 (Red) and DAPI (Blue), respectively.

Mouse Monoclonal
Species Human, Mouse, Rat
Applications WB, ELISA, Flow

15 Publications