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Intractable Epilepsy: Disease Bioinformatics

Epilepsy is defined as a diverse set of neurological disorders characterized by seizures. These seizures occur due to abnormal electrical activity in the brain. Factors that may lead to epilepsy include, but are not limited to, brain trauma, gene mutations, strokes, brain cancer, and extensive drug and alcohol use. Seizures occur due to a large release of glutamate, which causes a spread of excitation throughout the brain, which propagates the electrical signal and can lead to neuronal death. Intractable epilepsy, otherwise known as refractory epilepsy, is related to tuberous sclerosis as well as generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures. The HSPBAP1 gene is associated with this disease. Intractable epilepsy is categorized by a difficulty controlling seizures, which can stem from seizures that are too strong to be controlled by medication, or by an intolerance of medication. About 50 million people have epilepsy, with 80% of that population located in developing countries. It is possible to control epilepsy with medicine, but many cases, especially cases of intractable epilepsy, may require surgery in order to relieve symptoms.

Intractable Epilepsy Bioinformatics Tool

Laverne is a handy bioinformatics tool to help facilitate scientific exploration of related genes, diseases and pathways based on co-citations. Explore more on Intractable Epilepsy below! For more information on how to use Laverne, please read the How to Guide.
Vizit™, under license from BioVista Inc.

Top Research Reagents

We have 1402 products for the study of Intractable Epilepsy that can be applied to Western Blot, Flow Cytometry, Immunohistochemistry, Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence from our catalog of antibodies and ELISA kits.

NB100-80870
Western Blot: MDR1/ABCB1 Antibody [NB100-80870] - Analyis of anti-ABCB1 antibody shows detection of ABCB1 in crude membrane extracts from HF insect cells over-expressing human ABCB1. The extract was loaded onto a gel in the amounts indicated followed by electrophoresis and transfer to nitrocellulose. The membrane was probed with the primary antibody diluted to 1:600, followed by Peroxidase Conjugated Affinity Purified Anti-RABBIT IgG at 1:10000. Personal Communication, Anna Calcagno, CCR-NCI, Bethesda, MD.Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: MDR1/ABCB1 Antibody [NB100-80870] - Staining of human kidney tissue after heat-induced antigen retrieval. Antibody concentration 5 ug/ml.

Rabbit Polyclonal
Species Human, Mouse, Rat
Applications WB, ELISA, IHC

     1 Review

1 Publication
NB110-96417
Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence: LRP2 Antibody (CD7D5) [NB110-96417] - U2OS cells were fixed for 10 minutes using 10% formalin and then permeabilized for 5 minutes using 1X PBS + 0.1% Saponin.  The cells were incubated with anti-LRP2 (CD7D5) at 20 ug/ml overnight at 4C and detected with an anti-mouse Dylight 488 (Green) at a 1:500 dilution.  Nuclei were counterstained with DAPI (Blue).  Cells were imaged using a 40X objective.Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: LRP2 Antibody (CD7D5) [NB110-96417] - Staining (paraffin-embedded tissue-sections fixed in formalin) of Megalin in the brush border of the proximal tubule.

Mouse Monoclonal
Species Human, Mouse, Rat
Applications ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-Fr

     1 Review

13 Publications
H00023263-M01
Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: MCF2L Antibody (1D11) [H00023263-M01] - Analysis of monoclonal antibody to MCF2L on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human tonsil. Antibody concentration 1 ug/ml.Sandwich ELISA: MCF2L Antibody (1D11) [H00023263-M01] - Detection limit for recombinant GST tagged MCF2L is approximately 0.03ng/ml as a capture antibody.

Mouse Monoclonal
Species Human
Applications WB, ELISA, IHC

NB100-2315
Western Blot: TSC1 Antibody [NB100-2315] - Detection of Human and Mouse TSC1 by Western Blot. Samples: Whole cell lysate (50 ug) from HeLa and mouse NIH3T3 cells prepared using NETN lysis buffer. Antibody: Affinity purified goat anti-TSC1 antibody NB100-2315 used for WB at 0.05 ug/ml. Detection: Chemiluminescence with an exposure time of 3 minutes.Western Blot: TSC1 Antibody [NB100-2315] - Detection of Human and Mouse TSC1 on HeLa whole cell lysate using NB100-2315.

Rabbit Polyclonal
Species Human, Mouse
Applications WB, IP

3 Publications
NB300-141
Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence: GFAP Antibody [NB300-141] - Analysis of mixed neuron-glial cultures using GFAP antibody NB300-141 (red) and Vimentin antibody NB300-223 (green). The fibroblastic cells contain only Vimentin and so are green.  The astrocytes contain either Vimentin and GFAP (appearing golden) or predominantly GFAP (appearing red). Blue is nuclear DNA stain.Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence: GFAP Antibody [NB300-141] - Rat neurons stained with Neurofilament Heavy antibody NB300-217 (red) and GFAP antibody NB300-141 (green).

Rabbit Polyclonal
Species Human, Mouse, Rat
Applications WB, Simple Western, ICC/IF

     5 Reviews

49 Publications
7954-GM/CF


Species Human

1 Publication
NBP2-42388
Western Blot: LAMC2 Antibody (CL2980) [NBP2-42388] - Analysis in A-431 cells transfected with control siRNA, target specific siRNA probe #1 and #2, using Anti-LAMC2 antibody. Remaining relative intensity is presented. Loading control: Anti-GAPDH.Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence: LAMC2 Antibody (CL2980) [NBP2-42388] - Staining of A-431 cells using the Anti-LAMC2 monoclonal antibody, showing specific staining in the cytosol in green. Microtubule- and nuclear probes are visualized in red and blue, respectively (where available).

Mouse Monoclonal
Species Human
Applications WB, ICC/IF, IHC

2 Publications
NB100-1533
Western Blot: POMC Antibody [NB100-1533] - Staining of NIH3T3 cell lysate with antibody at 0.3 ug/mL (A) and Rat Brain cell lysate with antibody at 2 ug/mL (B). 35 ug protein in RIPA buffer. Detected by chemiluminescence.Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: POMC Antibody [NB100-1533] - Staining of paraffin embedded Human Pituitary Gland. Antibody at 2 ug/mL. Steamed antigen retrieval with Tris/EDTA buffer pH 9, HRP-staining.

Goat Polyclonal
Species Human, Mouse, Rat
Applications WB, Flow, ICC/IF

10 Publications
NB400-156
Dual RNAscope ISH-IHC: MRP1 Antibody (IU2H10) [NB400-156] - Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections of human testis were probed for MRP1 mRNA (ACD RNAScope Probe, catalog # 435591; Fast Red chromogen, ACD catalog # 322360). Adjacent tissue section was processed for immunohistochemistry using mouse monoclonal  (Novus Biologicals catalog # NB400-156) at 7ug/mL with overnight incubation at 4 degrees Celsius followed by incubation with anti-mouse IgG VisUCyte HRP Polymer Antibody (Catalog # VC001) and DAB chromogen (yellow-brown). Tissue was counterstained with hematoxylin (blue). Specific staining was localized to Leydig cells and seminiferous tubule cells.Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence: MRP1 Antibody (IU2H10) [NB400-156] - The MRP-1 antibody was tested in HeLa cells at a 1:50 dilution against Dylight 488 (Green).  Alpha tubulin and nuclei were counterstained against Dylight 550 (Red) and DAPI (Blue), respectively.

Mouse Monoclonal
Species Human, Mouse, Rat
Applications WB, ELISA, Flow

14 Publications
NB600-607
Western Blot: TOR/mTOR [p Ser2448] Antibody [NB600-607] - Detection of a 250 kDa band (indicated) corresponding to phosphorylated human mTOR present in a 293T whole cell lysates. Cells were serum-starved for 24 hours prior to harvest. 20 ug of lysate was loaded per lane for SDS-PAGE. Untreated cells are shown in lane 1, whereas cells in lane 2 were treated with IGF-1 (100 ng/ml) for 20 min prior to harvest. Follow reaction of antibody with a 1:2000 dilution of HRP Goat-a-Rabbit IgG for visualization.Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: TOR/mTOR [p Ser2448] Antibody [NB600-607] - Brown arrow= IBa1 positive cells, Green arrow= mTOR positive cells, Black arrow= mTOR and IBA1 positive cells. IHC-P Image submitted by a verified customer review.

Rabbit Polyclonal
Species Human, Rat
Applications WB, ELISA, IHC

     2 Reviews

9 Publications
NBP1-84881
Western Blot: CDKL5 Antibody [NBP1-84881] - Analysis in control (vector only transfected HEK293T lysate) and CDKL5 over-expression lysate (Co-expressed with a C-terminal myc-DDK tag (3.1 kDa) in mammalian HEK293T cells).Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence: CDKL5 Antibody [NBP1-84881] - Staining of human cell line A-431 shows localization to nucleoplasm. Antibody staining is shown in green.

Rabbit Polyclonal
Species Human
Applications WB, ICC/IF, IHC

1 Publication
NBP1-44270
Western Blot: SLC12A3 Antibody [NBP1-44270] - analysis of Rat tissue lysates showing detection of NCC protein using Rabbit Anti-NCC Polyclonal Antibody. Primary Antibody: Rabbit Anti-NCC Polyclonal Antibody at 1:1000.Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence: SLC12A3 Antibody [NBP1-44270] - Tissue: kidney tissue. Species: Rat. Primary Antibody: Rabbit Anti-NCC Polyclonal Antibody at 1:200. Secondary Antibody: FITC Goat Anti-Rabbit (green).

Rabbit Polyclonal
Species Mouse, Rat
Applications WB, EM, ICC/IF

1 Publication
NBP2-13426
Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence: tescalcin Antibody [NBP2-13426] - Staining of human cell line A549 shows localization to nucleoplasm & cytosol. Antibody staining is shown in green.Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: tescalcin Antibody [NBP2-13426] - Staining in human salivary gland and colon tissues using anti-TESC antibody. Corresponding TESC RNA-seq data are presented for the same tissues.

Rabbit Polyclonal
Species Human
Applications ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-P

NBP2-57642
Western Blot: Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 Antibody [NBP2-57642] - Western blot analysis in human cell line RT-4 and human cell line U-251 MG.Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 Antibody [NBP2-57642] - Staining of human duodenum shows strong granular cytoplasmic positivity in glandular cells.

Rabbit Polyclonal
Species Human
Applications WB, IHC, IHC-P

NBP1-88191
Western Blot: Carbonic Anhydrase I/CA1 Antibody [NBP1-88191] - Analysis in human cell line HELA.Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: Carbonic Anhydrase I/CA1 Antibody [NBP1-88191] - Staining of human pancreas shows no positivity in exocrine glandular cells as expected.

Rabbit Polyclonal
Species Human, Mouse, Rat
Applications WB, IHC, IHC-P

2 Publications
7270-IL/CF


Species Human

NBP2-13415
Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence: TBC1D9 Antibody [NBP2-13415] - Staining of human cell line U-2 OS shows localization to nucleoplasm & cytosol.Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: TBC1D9 Antibody [NBP2-13415] - Staining of human testis shows moderate cytoplasmic positivity in cells in seminiferous ducts.

Rabbit Polyclonal
Species Human
Applications ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-P

MAB40401
    Western  blot shows lysates of HEK293 human embryonic kidney cell line, HeLa human  cervical epithelial carcinoma cell line, Daudi human Burkitt's lymphoma cell  line, and NIH‑3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line. PVDF  membrane was probed with 1 µg/mL of Mouse Anti-Human/Mouse TSC2  Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB40401) followed by HRP-conjugated  Anti-Mouse IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # <a class=TSC2 was detected in immersion fixed HeLa human cervical epithelial carcinoma cell line using Mouse Anti-Human/Mouse TSC2  Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB40401) at 3 µg/mL for 3 hours at room temperature. Cells were stained using the NorthernLights™ 557-conjugated Anti-Mouse IgG Secondary Antibody (red; Catalog # <a class=

Mouse Monoclonal
Species Human, Mouse
Applications WB, IHC, ICC

NBP2-21598
Western Blot: ABAT Antibody [NBP2-21598] - Various tissue extracts (50 ug) were separated by 10% SDS-PAGE, and the membrane was blotted with ABAT antibody diluted at 1:10000. The HRP-conjugated anti-rabbit IgG antibody (NBP2-19301 was used to detect the primary antibody.Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence: ABAT Antibody [NBP2-21598] - HepG2 cells were fixed in ice-cold MeOH for 5 min. Green: ABAT protein stained by ABAT antibody diluted at 1:500. Blue: Hoechst 33342 staining.

Rabbit Polyclonal
Species Human, Mouse, Rat
Applications WB, ICC/IF, IHC

NB300-213
Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence: MAP2 Antibody [NB300-213] - Mouse primary cultures stained with MAP2 antibody. Image from verified customer review.Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence: MAP2 Antibody [NB300-213] - Immunofluorescent analysis of cortical neuron-glial cell culture from E20 rat stained with chicken pAb to microtubule associated protein 2 (MAP2), NB300-213, dilution 1:10,000 in red, and mouse mAb to MAP-tau, NPB2-25162, dilution 1:2,000, in green. The blue is DAPI staining of nuclear DNA. NB300-213 antibody stains dendrites and perikarya of neurons, while NBP2-25162 antibody labels neuronal perikarya, dendrites and also axonal process. As a result perikarya and dendrites appears orange-yellow, since they contain both MAP2 and tau, while axons are green.

Chicken Polyclonal
Species Human, Mouse, Rat
Applications WB, ICC/IF, IHC

     4 Reviews

47 Publications