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Diabetes, Autoimmune: Disease Bioinformatics

Autoimmune Diabetes is commonly known as Type 1 Diabetes. One develops type 1 diabetes when the body's immune system attacks beta cells in the pancreas. These beta cells are responsible for producing insulin. In the absence of insulin, glucose will stay in the blood for long periods of time which can cause severe damage to organs. Scientists are not sure what causes autoimmune diabetes, yet genetic, environmental, and autoimmune components play a role. There is no cure for autoimmune diabetes but symptoms can be regulated through supplementing insulin and monitoring sugar levels in the blood. Anyone is at risk for type 1 diabetes but those with a family history or exposed to certain environmental influences pose greater risk of development.

Diabetes, Autoimmune Bioinformatics Tool

Laverne is a handy bioinformatics tool to help facilitate scientific exploration of related genes, diseases and pathways based on co-citations. Explore more on Diabetes, Autoimmune below! For more information on how to use Laverne, please read the How to Guide.
Vizit™, under license from BioVista Inc.

Top Research Reagents

We have 5005 products for the study of Diabetes, Autoimmune that can be applied to Western Blot, Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence, Flow Cytometry, Immunohistochemistry, Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) from our catalog of antibodies and ELISA kits.

NBP1-90044
Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: ATN1 Antibody [NBP1-90044] - Analysis in human cerebral cortex and liver tissues. Corresponding ATN1 RNA-seq data are presented for the same tissues.Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence: ATN1 Antibody [NBP1-90044] - Staining of human cell line U-251 MG shows localization to nucleoplasm. Antibody staining is shown in green.

Rabbit Polyclonal
Species Human
Applications WB, ICC/IF, IHC

1 Publication
NBP2-34260
Western Blot: Insulin Antibody (E2-E3 (same as INS04)) [NBP2-34260] - Probing of Western blots of pancreatic lysates from control and iron overloaded Tg40 PrP and PrP-/- mice with antibodies specific for insulin dimer and pentamer (upper and lower panels) shows decreased expression in Tg40 PrP relative to PrP-/- samples (lanes 1 & 5 vs. 3 & 7). Image collected and cropped by CiteAb from the following publication (nature.com/articles/s41598-018-24786-1), licensed under a CC-BY licence.Immunohistochemistry: Insulin Antibody (E2-E3 (same as INS04)) [NBP2-34260] - Immunohistochemistry of pancreas shows relatively higher reactivity for insulin in PrP-/- relative to Tg40 PrP sections (panels 1 & 3). Iron overloading decreases insulin reactivity in Tg40 PrP but not in PrP-/- samples (panels 1 vs. 2 & 3 vs. 4). Reaction for glucagon is higher in iron overloaded Tg40 PrP relative to control samples (panels 5 & 6). The difference is minimal in PrP-/- samples (panels 7 & 8). Image collected and cropped by CiteAb from the following publication (http://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-24786-1), licensed under a CC-BY licence.

Mouse Monoclonal
Species Human, Mouse, Porcine
Applications WB, ICC/IF, IHC

     5 Reviews

1 Publication
NB110-41404
Western Blot: Glutamine Synthetase Antibody [NB110-41404] - Analysis of glutamine synthase. 40ug of lysates from mouse (Lanes M), rat (Lane R), pig (Lane P), bovine (Lane B), or human (Lane Hu) retina were probed. A 42 kDa band was identified in lysates from retinas of all species.Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence: Glutamine Synthetase Antibody [NB110-41404] - Immunofluorescence using NB110-41404. Submitted via verified customer review.

Rabbit Polyclonal
Species Human, Mouse, Rat
Applications WB, ICC/IF, IHC

     1 Review

6 Publications
210-TA
1 µg/lane of Recombinant Human TNF-alpha  was resolved by SDS-PAGE with silver staining, under reducing (R) conditions, showing a band at 17 kDa.Recombinant Human TNF-alpha  (Catalog # 210‑TA) induces cytotoxicity in the L-929 mouse fibroblast cell line in the presence of the metabolic inhibitor actinomycin D. The ED<sub>50</sub> for this effect is 25‑100 pg/mL.


Species Human

     35 Reviews

651 Publications
NBP1-19371
Immunohistochemistry: CD4 Antibody [NBP1-19371] - Increased CD3+ and CD4+ T-cell occurrence in the brainstem of SHR-72 transgenic rat model for tauopathies. (A-D) Immunofluorescence staining showed CD4+ T-cells in SHR-72 transgenic animals. (E- H) Immunofluorescence staining showed more perivascular than brain parenchyma infiltrating CD4+ T-cells in SHR-72 transgenic animals. PLoS One. 2019 May 23;14(5):e0217216. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0217216.Immunohistochemistry: CD4 Antibody [NBP1-19371] - DBZ inhibits the accumulation of CD4+ T cells and Th2 differentiation in the AAAs. (B) The representation of immunohistochemical staining for CD4+ in abdominal aorta from four groups (left). Bar graphs show the percentage of CD4+ positive cell areas (right; n=3 per group). Bar: 50 um.

Rabbit Polyclonal
Species Human, Mouse, Rat
Applications WB, Simple Western, Flow

     9 Reviews

31 Publications
DY417
 IL-10 [Biotin]


Species Mouse

     7 Reviews

195 Publications
6507-IL/CF


Species Human

3 Publications
NBP1-33284
Western Blot: GAD2/GAD65 Antibody [NBP1-33284] - Various tissue extracts (50 ug) were separated by 7.5% SDS-PAGE, and the membrane was blotted with GAD65 antibody diluted at 1:1000. The HRP-conjugated anti-rabbit IgG antibody was used to detect the primary antibody.Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence: GAD2/GAD65 Antibody [NBP1-33284] - DIV9 rat E18 primary hippocampal neuron cells were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde at RT for 15 min. Green: GAD65 stained by GAD65 antibody diluted at 1:500.Red: beta Tubulin 3/ Tuj1, stained by beta Tubulin 3/ Tuj1 antibody (NBP2-43559) [11710]  diluted at 1:500. Blue: Fluoroshield with DAPI.

Rabbit Polyclonal
Species Human, Mouse, Rat
Applications WB, ICC/IF, IHC

     2 Reviews

2 Publications
285-IF
Recombinant Human IFN-gamma  (Catalog # 285‑IF) demonstrates anti-viral activity in HeLa human cervical epithelial carcinoma cells infected with encephalomyocarditis (EMC) virus. The activity is over 2-fold greater than the top competitor's IFN-gamma.1 μg/lane of Recombinant Human IFN-gamma  was resolved with SDS-PAGE under reducing (R) conditions and visualized by silver staining, showing a single band at 17 kDa.


Species Human

     20 Reviews

340 Publications
NBP1-86126
Western Blot: LAD1 Antibody [NBP1-86126] - Analysis in human cell lines A-431 and HEK293 using Anti-LAD1 antibody. Corresponding LAD1 RNA-seq data are presented for the same cell lines. Loading control: Anti-PFN1.Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence: LAD1 Antibody [NBP1-86126] - Staining of human cell line MCF7 shows localization to actin filaments. Antibody staining is shown in green.

Rabbit Polyclonal
Species Human
Applications WB, ICC/IF, IHC

1 Publication
7268-CT
Recombinant Human CTLA-4 Fc Chimera (Catalog # 7268-CT) inhibits IL-2 secretion by stimulated Jurkat human acute Tcell leukemia cells. The ED<sub>50</sub> for this effect is 0.03-0.15 μg/mL whenstimulated with 1 μg/mL Recombinant Human B7‑1/CD80 Fc Chimera (Catalog # <a class=


Species Human

     3 Reviews

1 Publication
NBP1-49045
Flow Cytometry: CD8 Antibody (53-6.7) [NBP1-49045] - CD8 alpha Antibody (53-6.7) [NBP1-49045] - Analysis of lymph nodes by multiple staining.Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: CD8 Antibody (53-6.7) [NBP1-49045] - CD8 alpha Antibody (53-6.7) [NBP1-49045] - CD8 alpha expression in mouse spleen tissue using anti-CD8 alpha antibody. Image from verified customer review.

Rat Monoclonal
Species Mouse, Rat
Applications Flow, ICC/IF, IHC

     3 Reviews

16 Publications
202-IL
1 μg/lane of Recombinant Human IL-2 was resolved with SDS-PAGE under reducing (R) conditions and visualized by silver staining, showing a single band at 13 kDa.Recombinant Human IL-2 (Catalog # 202-IL) stimulates cell proliferation of the CTLL‑2 mouse cytotoxic T cell line. The ED<SUB>50</SUB> for this effect is 0.05-0.25 ng/mL.


Species Human

     23 Reviews

312 Publications
NBP1-48272
Western Blot: GAD1/GAD67 Antibody (OTI3G9) [NBP1-48272] - Analysis of extracts (35ug) from 9 different cell lines by using anti-GAD1/GAD67 monoclonal antibody.Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence: GAD1/GAD67 Antibody (OTI3G9) [NBP1-48272] - Immunofluorescent staining of A549 cells using anti-GAD1/GAD67 mouse monoclonal antibody.

Mouse Monoclonal
Species Human, Mouse, Rat
Applications WB, ICC/IF, IHC

2 Publications
NB120-6405
Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence: MHC Class I Antibody (OX18) [NB120-6405] - PC12 cells were fixed for 10 minutes using 4% PFA and then permeabilized for 5 minutes using 1X PBS + 0.05% Triton-X100.  The cells were incubated with anti-MHC Class I Antibody (OX18) at 2 ug/ml overnight at 4C and detected with an anti-mouse Dylight 488 (Green) at a 1:500 dilution.  Actin was detected with Phalloidin 568 (Red) at a 1:500 dilution.  Nuclei were counterstained with DAPI (Blue).  Cells were imaged using a 40X objective.Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: MHC Class I Antibody (OX18) [NB120-6405] - Analysis of FFPE rat brain cerebellum using MHC Class I (OK18) antibody at 1:200 on a Bond Rx autostainer (Leica Biosystems). The assay involved 20 minutes of heat induced antigen retrieval (HIER) using 10mM sodium citrate buffer (pH 6.0) and endogenous peroxidase quenching with peroxide block. The sections were incubated with primary antibody for 30 minutes and Bond Polymer Refine Detection (Leica Biosystems) with DAB was used for signal development followed by counterstaining with hematoxylin. Whole slide scanning and capturing of representative images was performed using Aperio AT2 (Leica Biosystems). Endothelial staining was observed. Staining was performed by Histowiz.

Mouse Monoclonal
Species Rat
Applications EM, ELISA, Flow

32 Publications
MAB7906
Western blot shows lysates of human brain (hypothalamus) tissue and human brain (hippocampus) tissue. PVDF membrane was probed with 1 µg/mL of Mouse Anti-Human IA-2/PTPRN Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB7906) followed by HRP-conjugated Anti-Mouse IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # <A class=NoLineLink href=Simple Western lane view shows lysates of human brain (hypothalamus) tissue, loaded at 0.5 mg/mL. A specific band was detected for IA-2/PTPRN at approximately 78 kDa (as indicated) using 10 µg/mL of Mouse Anti-Human IA-2/PTPRN Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB7906). This experiment was conducted under reducing conditions and using the 12-230 kDa separation system.       

Mouse Monoclonal
Species Human
Applications WB, Simple Western, IHC

NBP2-25255
Western Blot: B7-1/CD80 Antibody (62N3G8) [NBP2-25255] - Analysis in human Raji lymphoma cells.Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: B7-1/CD80 Antibody (62N3G8) [NBP2-25255] - Human thymus stained with CD80 antibody at 5 ug/ml using peroxidase-conjugate and DAB chromogen. Note membrane and cytoplasmic staining.

Mouse Monoclonal
Species Human, Mouse
Applications WB, Flow, IHC

     2 Reviews

2 Publications
NB100-39002
Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: FoxP3 Antibody [NB100-39002] - Mouse spleen stained with FoxP3 antibody. IHC-P image submitted by a verified customer review.Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: FoxP3 Antibody [NB100-39002] - Number of Granzyme B+ and FoxP3+ cells infiltrating tumors. Representative images of IHC staining of FoxP3+ and Granzyme B+ cells in the peri-tumoral areas in two mice characterized by low FoxP3+ and high Granzyme B+ (panels 1 and 2) or high FoxP3+ and low Granzyme B+ (panels 3 and 4). Image collected and cropped by Cite Ab from the following publication (Inhibition of tumor growth by cancer vaccine combined with metronomic chemotherapy and anti-PD-1 in a pre-clinical setting. Oncotarget (2018) licensed under a CC-BY licence.

Rabbit Polyclonal
Species Human, Mouse, Rat
Applications WB, Flow, IB

     2 Reviews

22 Publications
NBP2-45041
Flow Cytometry: HLA DQ Antibody (SPV-L3) [NBP2-45041] - Flow Cytometric Analysis of Raji cells. HLA DQ Antibody (SPV-L3) followed by goat anti-Mouse IgG-CF488 (Blue); Isotype Control (Red).

Mouse Monoclonal
Species Human, Porcine
Applications Flow, ICC/IF, IF

1 Publication
DR2A00
 CD25/IL-2R alpha [HRP] CD25/IL-2R alpha [HRP]


Species Human

31 Publications