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Diabetes, Autoimmune: Disease Bioinformatics

Autoimmune Diabetes is commonly known as Type 1 Diabetes. One develops type 1 diabetes when the body's immune system attacks beta cells in the pancreas. These beta cells are responsible for producing insulin. In the absence of insulin, glucose will stay in the blood for long periods of time which can cause severe damage to organs. Scientists are not sure what causes autoimmune diabetes, yet genetic, environmental, and autoimmune components play a role. There is no cure for autoimmune diabetes but symptoms can be regulated through supplementing insulin and monitoring sugar levels in the blood. Anyone is at risk for type 1 diabetes but those with a family history or exposed to certain environmental influences pose greater risk of development.

Diabetes, Autoimmune Bioinformatics Tool

Laverne is a handy bioinformatics tool to help facilitate scientific exploration of related genes, diseases and pathways based on co-citations. Explore more on Diabetes, Autoimmune below! For more information on how to use Laverne, please read the How to Guide.
Vizit™, under license from BioVista Inc.

Top Research Reagents

We have 3692 products for the study of Diabetes, Autoimmune that can be applied to Western Blot, Chromatin Immunoprecipitation, Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence, Flow Cytometry, Immunohistochemistry, Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) from our catalog of antibodies and ELISA kits.

AF6567
Western blot shows lysates of human liver tissue and mouse liver tissue. PVDF Membrane was probed with 1 µg/mL of Human/Mouse ATN1 Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF6567) followed by HRP-conjugated Anti-Sheep IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # <a class=ATN1 was detected in immersion fixed paraffin-embedded sections of human brain (hypothalamus) using Sheep Anti-Human/Mouse ATN1 Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF6567) at 3 µg/mL overnight at 4 °C. Before incubation with the primary antibody, tissue was subjected to heat-induced epitope retrieval using Antigen Retrieval Reagent-Basic (Catalog # <A class=NoLineLink href=

Sheep Polyclonal
Species Human, Mouse
Applications WB, IHC

NBP2-34260
Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: Insulin Antibody (E2-E3 (same as INS04)) [NBP2-34260] - Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human pancreas stained with insulin Monoclonal Antibody (E2-E3)SDS-Page: Insulin Antibody (E2-E3 (same as INS04)) [NBP2-34260]

Mouse Monoclonal
Species Human, Mouse, Porcine
Applications WB, Flow, ICC/IF

     4 Reviews

NB110-41404
Western Blot: Glutamine Synthetase Antibody [NB110-41404] - Analysis of glutamine synthase. 40ug of lysates from mouse (Lanes M), rat (Lanes R), pig (Lanes P), bovine (Lanes B), or human (Lanes Hu) retina were probed. A 42 kDa band was identified in lysates from retinas of all species.Immunohistochemistry: Glutamine Synthetase Antibody [NB110-41404] - Localization of glutamine synthase in the retina. Paraffin sections of mouse (A, B), rat (C, D, G-I), or human (E, F) retina fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde were reacted with anti-glutamine synthase (red fluorescence staining in B, D, G, I, and brown immuno-peroxidase reaction [using ABC kit and visualization with DAB product in F]. Nuclei in some immunofluorescence experiments (A-D) were stained with DAPI (shown in cyan), and with nuclear fast red in E and F.  On inspection at low magnification, anti- glutamine synthase reacted with a single population of cells extending from the ganglion cell layer (GCL) through the inner nuclear layer (INL). No signal was detected in controls either pre-incubated with 100ug/ml of the immunizing peptide (A) or with pre-immune serum (C, E). The pattern of staining observed in all experiments is typicals. This finding was confirmed by co-localization (indicated by yellow in I) of glutamine synthase (red in G) with antoher marker of glutamine synthase (green in H).

Rabbit Polyclonal
Species Human, Mouse, Rat
Applications WB, IHC

     1 Review

1 Publication
210-TA/CF
1 µg/lane of Recombinant Human TNF-alpha  was resolved by SDS-PAGE with silver staining, under reducing (R) conditions, showing a band at 17 kDa.Recombinant Human TNF-alpha  (Catalog # 210‑TA/CF) induces cytotoxicity in the L-929 mouse fibroblast cell line in the presence of the metabolic inhibitor actinomycin D. The ED<sub>50</sub> for this effect is 25‑100 pg/mL.


Species Human

421 Publications
NBP1-19371
Western Blot: CD4 Antibody [NBP1-19371] - CD4 antibody was tested in the following cell lysates: Lane 1) human spleen 2) human tonsil 3) human placenta 4) human kidney 5) human liver 6) mouse spleen 7) mouse placenta 8) rat placenta.Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence: CD4 Antibody [NBP1-19371] - CD4 antibody was tested in Jurkat cells with Dylight 488 (green). Nuclei were counterstained with DAPI (blue).

Rabbit Polyclonal
Species Human, Mouse, Rat
Applications WB, Simple Western, ICC/IF

     6 Reviews

13 Publications
204-IL/CF
1 μg/lane of Recombinant Human IL-4 was resolved with SDS-PAGE under reducing (R) conditions and visualized by silver staining, showing a single band at 14 kDa.Recombinant Human IL-4 (Catalog # 204‑IL/CF) stimulates cell proliferation of the TF-1 human erythroleukemic cell line. The ED<SUB>50</SUB> for this effect is 0.05‑02 ng/mL.


Species Human

256 Publications
NBP1-33284
Western Blot: GAD2/GAD65 Antibody [NBP1-33284] - Sample (50 ug of whole cell lysate) A: rat brain 7. 5% SDS PAGE; antibody diluted at 1:1000.Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence: GAD2/GAD65 Antibody [NBP1-33284] -  Paraformaldehyde-fixed HeLa, using GAD65 antibody (Green) at 1:500 dilution. Alpha-tubulin filaments were labeled with Red at 1:2500.

Rabbit Polyclonal
Species Human, Mouse, Rat
Applications WB, ICC/IF, IHC

     2 Reviews

2 Publications
285-IF/CF
1 μg/lane of Recombinant Human IFN-gamma  was resolved with SDS-PAGE under reducing (R) conditions and visualized by silver staining, showing a single band at 17 kDa.Recombinant Human IFN-gamma  (Catalog # 285‑IF/CF) demonstrates anti-viral activity in HeLa human cervical epithelial carcinoma cells infected with encephalomyocarditis (EMC) virus. The ED<SUB>50</SUB> for this effect is 0.15‑0.75 ng/mL.


Species Human

217 Publications
NBP1-86126
Western Blot: LAD1 Antibody [NBP1-86126] - Analysis in human cell lines A-431 and HEK293 using Anti-LAD1 antibody. Corresponding LAD1 RNA-seq data are presented for the same cell lines. Loading control: Anti-PFN1.Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence: LAD1 Antibody [NBP1-86126] - Immunofluorescent staining of human cell line MCF7 shows localization to actin filaments.

Rabbit Polyclonal
Species Human
Applications WB, ICC/IF, IHC

AF-386-PB
    Western  blot shows lysates of NS0 mouse myeloma cell line either mock transfected or  transfected with human <br>CTLA-4. PVDF membrane was probed with  0.5 µg/mL of Goat Anti-Human CTLA‑4 Antigen  Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF-386-PB) followed by  HRP-conjugated Anti-Goat IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # <a class=NS0 mouse myeloma cell line co-transfected with human CTLA-4 and eGFP was stained with either (A) Goat Anti-Human CTLA‑4 Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF-386-PB) or (B) Normal Goat IgG Control (Catalog # <A class=NoLineLink href=

Goat Polyclonal
Species Human
Applications WB, Flow, CyTOF-ready

     2 Reviews

2 Publications
NBP1-49045
Immunocytochemistry: CD8 alpha Antibody (53-6.7) [NBP1-49045] - Analysis of immersion fixed splenocytes. Primary antibody was used at a dilution of 10 ug/ml and incubated for 3 hours at room temperature.Immunohistochemistry-Frozen: CD8 alpha Antibody (53-6.7) [NBP1-49045] - Analysis of CD8+ T cells in allogeneic skin grafted onto a mouse.

Rat Monoclonal
Species Mouse, Rat
Applications Flow, ICC/IF, IHC

     2 Reviews

9 Publications
202-IL/CF
1 μg/lane of Recombinant Human IL-2 was resolved with SDS-PAGE under reducing (R) conditions and visualized by silver staining, showing a single band at 13 kDa.Recombinant Human IL-2 (Catalog # 202-IL/CF) stimulates cell proliferation of the CTLL‑2 mouse cytotoxic T cell line. The ED<SUB>50</SUB> for this effect is 0.05-0.25 ng/mL.


Species Human

204 Publications
AF2086
GAD1/GAD67 was detected in immersion fixed paraffin-embedded sections of human spinal cord using 15 µg/mL Goat Anti-Human/Mouse/Rat GAD1/GAD67 Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF2086) overnight at 4 °C. Tissue was stained with the Anti-Goat HRP-DAB Cell & Tissue Staining Kit  (brown; Catalog # <a class=    Western  blot shows lysates of human brain (hypothalamus) tissue, mouse brain (total)  tissue, and rat brain (total) tissue. PVDF membrane was probed with  1 µg/mL of Goat Anti-Human/Mouse/Rat GAD1/GAD67 Antigen Affinity-purified  Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF2086) followed by HRP-conjugated Anti-Goat  IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # <a class=

Goat Polyclonal
Species Human, Mouse, Rat
Applications WB, Simple Western, IHC

2 Publications
NB120-6405
Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence: MHC Class I Antibody (OX18) [NB120-6405] - PC-12 cells were fixed for 10 minutes using 10% formalin and then permeabilized for 5 minutes using 1X TBS + 0.5% Triton-X100. The cells were incubated with anti-MHC Class I (OX18) NB120-6405 at a 1:100 dilution overnight at 4C and detected with an anti-mouse Dylight 488 (Green) at a 1:500 dilution. Actin was detected with Phalloidin 568 (Red) at a 1:200 dilution. Nuclei were counterstained with DAPI (Blue). Cells were imaged using a 40X objective.Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: MHC Class I Antibody (OX18) [NB120-6405] -  IHC analysis of formalin fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) rat brain cerebellum using MHC Class I (OK18) antibody at 1:200 on a Bond Rx autostainer (Leica Biosystems). The assay involved 20 minutes of heat induced antigen retrieval (HIER) using 10mM sodium citrate buffer (pH 6.0) and endogenous peroxidase quenching with peroxide block. The sections were incubated with primary antibody for 30 minutes and Bond Polymer Refine Detection (Leica Biosystems) with DAB was used for signal development followed by counterstaining with hematoxylin. Whole slide scanning and capturing of representative images was performed using Aperio AT2 (Leica Biosystems). Endothelial staining was observed. Staining was performed by Histowiz.

Mouse Monoclonal
Species Rat
Applications B/N, ELISA, Flow

29 Publications
MAB7906
Western blot shows lysates of human brain (hypothalamus) tissue and human brain (hippocampus) tissue. PVDF membrane was probed with 1 µg/mL of Mouse Anti-Human IA-2/PTPRN Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB7906) followed by HRP-conjugated Anti-Mouse IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # <A class=NoLineLink href=IA-2/PTPRN was detected in immersion fixed paraffin-embedded sections of human pancreas using Mouse Anti-Human IA-2/PTPRN Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB7906) at 15 µg/mL overnight at 4 °C. Before incubation with the primary antibody, tissue was subjected to heat-induced epitope retrieval using Antigen Retrieval Reagent-Basic (Catalog # <a class=

Mouse Monoclonal
Species Human
Applications WB, Simple Western, IHC

MAB140
<P align=left>Recombinant Human B7‑1/CD80 Fc Chimera (Catalog # <A class=NoLineLink href=B7‑1/CD80 was detected in immersion fixed paraffin-embedded sections of human tonsil using Mouse Anti-Human B7‑1/CD80 Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB140) at 5 µg/mL overnight at 4 °C. Tissue was stained using the Anti-Mouse HRP-DAB Cell & Tissue Staining Kit (brown; Catalog # <a class=

Mouse Monoclonal
Species Human
Applications Flow, IHC, CyTOF-ready

5 Publications
NB100-39002
Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: FoxP3 Antibody [NB100-39002] - Mouse spleen stained with FoxP3 antibody. Image from verified customer review.Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: FoxP3 Antibody [NB100-39002] - IHC analysis of a formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue section of human tonsil using 1:200 dilution of rabbit anti-FoxP3 antibody. The staining was developed with HRP labeled anti-rabbit IgG secondary antibody and DAB reagent, and nuclei of cells were counter-stained with hematoxylin. This FoxP3 antibody generated an expected and a specific nuclear staining of FOXP3 in a subset of cells which are potentially the Treg cells.

Rabbit Polyclonal
Species Human, Mouse, Rat
Applications WB, Flow, ICC/IF

     1 Review

6 Publications
H00003117-M01
Proximity Ligation Assay: HLA DQA1 Antibody (1A3) [H00003117-M01] - Analysis of protein-protein interactions between CD74 and HLA-DQA1. HeLa cells were stained with anti-CD74 rabbit purified polyclonal 1:1200 and anti-HLA-DQA1 mouse monoclonal antibody 1:50. Each red dot represents the detection of protein-protein interaction complex, and nuclei were counterstained with DAPI (blue).ELISA: HLA DQA1 Antibody (1A3) [H00003117-M01] - Detection limit for recombinant GST tagged HLA-DQA1 is 0.3 ng/ml as a capture antibody.

Mouse Monoclonal
Species Human
Applications WB, ELISA, PLA