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Botulism: Disease Bioinformatics

Botulism, caused by a nerve toxin, is a very rare but serious condition that causes paralysis. The nerve toxin is caused by Clostridium botulinum which is a type of bacteria that can be found in the soil and low-oxygenated areas. There are three common types of botulism. Occurring in about 15% of cases, Foodborne botulism is caused by botulinum toxin contaminated foods. Occurring about 20% of the time, Wound botulism is caused when a wound is infected with the bacteria and then the toxin is produced. Infant botulism, occurring 65% of the time, is caused when the infant consumes the bacteria which then grows in their intestines and releases the toxin. Symptoms of botulism include muscle weakness, dry mouth, and double vision. Botulism is treated with antitoxins and antibiotics, and the death rate due to botulism has dropped from 50% to 3-5% in the last 50 years.

Botulism Bioinformatics Tool

Laverne is a handy bioinformatics tool to help facilitate scientific exploration of related genes, diseases and pathways based on co-citations. Explore more on Botulism below! For more information on how to use Laverne, please read the How to Guide.
Vizit™, under license from BioVista Inc.

Top Research Reagents

We have 768 products for the study of Botulism that can be applied to Chromatin Immunoprecipitation, Western Blot, Flow Cytometry, Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence, Immunohistochemistry from our catalog of antibodies and ELISA kits.

NBP1-88769
Western Blot: SNAP25 Antibody [NBP1-88769] - Analysis in control (vector only transfected HEK293T lysate) and SNAP25 over-expression lysate (Co-expressed with a C-terminal myc-DDK tag (3.1 kDa) in mammalian HEK293T cells).Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: SNAP25 Antibody [NBP1-88769] - Staining of human testis shows no positivity in cells in seminiferous ducts as expected.

Rabbit Polyclonal
Species Human, Mouse
Applications WB, IHC, IHC-P

4 Publications
NBP2-67656
Western Blot: hnRNP C1 + C2 Antibody (SN0652) [NBP2-67656] - Analysis of hnRNP C1+C2 on different lysates using anti-hnRNP C1+C2 antibody at 1/1,000 dilution. Positive control: Lane 1: Hela Lane 2: MCF-7 Lane 3: HepG2Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence: hnRNP C1 + C2 Antibody (SN0652) [NBP2-67656] - Staining hnRNP C1+C2 in B16-F1 (green). The nuclear counter stain is DAPI (blue). Cells were fixed in paraformaldehyde, permeabilised with 0.25% Triton X100/PBS.

Rabbit Monoclonal
Species Human, Mouse, Rat
Applications WB, Flow, ICC/IF

NBP2-93935
Western Blot: PFDN4 Antibody [NBP2-93935] - Analysis of extracts of various cell lines, using PFDN4 at 1:1000 dilution. Secondary antibody: HRP Goat Anti-Rabbit IgG (H+L) at 1:10000 dilution. Lysates/proteins: 25ug per lane. Blocking buffer: 3% nonfat dry milk in TBST. Detection: ECL Basic Kit. Exposure time: 90s.Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence: PFDN4 Antibody [NBP2-93935] - Analysis of C6 cells using PFDN4 at dilution of 1:100. Blue: DAPI for nuclear staining.

Rabbit Polyclonal
Species Human, Mouse, Rat
Applications WB, ICC/IF, IHC

NBP1-88527
Western Blot: ARHGAP4 Antibody [NBP1-88527] - Western blot analysis in mouse cell line NIH-3T3, rat cell line NBT-II and rat cell line pC12.Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: ARHGAP4 Antibody [NBP1-88527] - Staining of human colon.

Rabbit Polyclonal
Species Human, Mouse, Rat
Applications WB, IHC, IHC-P

NLS7412
Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: MAP4K6 Antibody [NLS7412] - Anti-MINK1 / MAP4K6 antibody IHC of human hippocampus. Immunohistochemistry of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue after heat-induced antigen retrieval.Immunohistochemistry: MAP4K6 Antibody [NLS7412] - Analysis of anti-MAP4K6 antibody with human hippocampus

Rabbit Polyclonal
Species Human, Mouse, Rat
Applications IHC, IHC-P

H00003753-M01
Western Blot: KCNE1 Antibody (5B12) [H00003753-M01] - Analysis of KCNE1 over-expressed 293 cell line, cotransfected with KCNE1 Validated Chimera RNAi ( Cat # H00003753-R01V ) (Lane 2) or non-transfected control (Lane 1). Blot probed with KCNE1 monoclonal antibody (M01), clone 5B12 (Cat # H00003753-M01 ). GAPDH ( 36.1 kDa ) used as specificity and loading control.Western Blot: KCNE1 Antibody (5B12) [H00003753-M01] - analysis of KCNE1 expression in transfected 293T cell line by KCNE1 monoclonal antibody (M01), clone 5B12. Lane 1: KCNE1 transfected lysate (14.7 KDa). Lane 2: Non-transfected lysate.

Mouse Monoclonal
Species Human, Rat, Canine
Applications WB, ELISA, ICC/IF

2 Publications
NBP2-73857
Western Blot: RFC2 Antibody (OTI2B2) - Azide and BSA Free [NBP2-73857] - Analysis of HEK293T cells were transfected with the pCMV6-ENTRY control (Left lane) or pCMV6-ENTRY RFC2.Immunohistochemistry: RFC2 Antibody (OTI2B2) - Azide and BSA Free [NBP2-73857] - Analysis of Human prostate tissue.

Mouse Monoclonal
Species Human
Applications WB, Flow, IHC

AF6457
Western blot shows lysates of Daudi human Burkitt's lymphoma cell line. Gels were loaded with 30 µg of whole cell lysate (WCL), 20 µg of cytoplasmic (Cyto), and 10 µg of nuclear extracts (Nuc).  PVDF Membrane was probed with 1 µg/mL of Sheep Anti-Human RFC1 Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF6457) followed by HRP-conjugated Anti-Sheep IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # <a class=

Sheep Polyclonal
Species Human
Applications WB

NBP1-89342
Western Blot: ATP6V0A1 Antibody [NBP1-89342] - In Cln1-/- mice V0a1 is misrouted to plasma membrane preventing its interaction with AP-3. Western blot analysis and densitometric quantitation of V0a1 in isolated plasma membrane fraction from WT and Cln1-/- mouse brain (n=4, *P<0.05). Image collected and cropped by CiteAb from the following publication (http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/ncomms14612), licensed under a CC-BY licence.Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence: ATP6V0A1 Antibody [NBP1-89342] - Staining of human cell line A-431 shows localization to the Golgi apparatus & vesicles. Antibody staining is shown in green.

Rabbit Polyclonal
Species Human, Mouse
Applications WB, ICC/IF, IHC

     1 Review

3 Publications
NBP2-73859
Western Blot: RFC4 Antibody (OTI1A8) - Azide and BSA Free [NBP2-73859] - Analysis of HEK293T cells were transfected with the pCMV6-ENTRY control (Left lane) or pCMV6-ENTRY RFC4.Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence: RFC4 Antibody (OTI1A8) - Azide and BSA Free [NBP2-73859] - Analysis of COS7 cells transiently transfected by pCMV6-ENTRY RFC4.

Mouse Monoclonal
Species Human, Mouse, Rat
Applications WB, ICC/IF, IHC

NB300-613
Western Blot: Clathrin Heavy Chain 1/CHC17 Antibody (X22) [NB300-613] - Analysis of 25 ug of human brain lysates.Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence: Clathrin Heavy Chain 1/CHC17 Antibody (X22) [NB300-613] - Analysis of Clathrin, Heavy chain using Anti-Clathrin, Heavy chain Monoclonal Antibody (X22) shows staining in Hela Cells. Clathrin, Heavy chain staining (green), F-Actin staining with Phalloidin (red) and nuclei with DAPI (blue) is shown. Cells were grown on chamber slides and fixed with formaldehyde prior to staining. Cells were probed without (control) or with or an antibody recognizing Clathrin, Heavy chain at a dilution of 1:200 over night at 4C, washed with PBS and incubated with a DyLight-488 conjugated secondary antibody. Images were taken at 60X magnification.

Mouse Monoclonal
Species Human, Mouse, Rat
Applications WB, Flow, ICC/IF

     1 Review

7 Publications
NBP1-86135
Western Blot: Arylsulfatase A/ARSA Antibody [NBP1-86135] - Analysis in human cell line Jurkat.Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: Arylsulfatase A/ARSA Antibody [NBP1-86135] - Staining of human prostate shows strong granular cytoplasmic positivity in glandular cells.

Rabbit Polyclonal
Species Human
Applications WB, IHC, IHC-P

NB300-595
Western Blot: VAMP-2 Antibody [NB300-595] - Analysis was performed on tissues (40 ug lysate) of Mouse Cerebellum (Lane 1), Mouse Brain (Lane 2) and Rat Brain (Lane 3). Flow Cytometry: VAMP-2 Antibody [NB300-595] - Cells were fixed with 70% ethanol for 10 minutes, permeabilized with 0.25% Triton™ X-100 for 20 minutes, and blocked with 5% BSA for 30 minutes at room temperature.

Rabbit Polyclonal
Species Mouse, Rat, Bovine
Applications WB, Flow, IHC

4 Publications
NBP1-59941
Western Blot: DEGS1 Antibody [NBP1-59941] - Positive control (+): 293T (2T). Negative control (-): MCF7 (N10). Antibody concentration: 1ug/mlImmunohistochemistry: DEGS1 Antibody [NBP1-59941] - Human Lung Tissue Observed Staining: Cytoplasm of pneumocytes Primary Antibody Concentration: 1 : 600 Secondary Antibody: Donkey anti-Rabbit-Cy3 Secondary Antibody Concentration: 1 : 200 Magnification: 20X Exposure Time: 0.5 - 2.0 sec.

Rabbit Polyclonal
Species Human
Applications WB, IHC, IHC-P

NB100-91297
Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence: Synaptotagmin 2 Antibody [NB100-91297] - 1 day- old mouse cortical cell culture using Rabbit antibody to rat, mouse Synaptotagmin-2: whole serum at 1:2000 dilution. DAPI counter stained.Immunohistochemistry: Synaptotagmin 2 Antibody [NB100-91297] - IHC on rat spinal cord using Rabbit antibody to Synaptotagmin 2 (80-130) at 1 : 3000 dilution. Pre-absorption of the antibody with the immunising peptide completely abolishes the immunostaining (not shown).

Rabbit Polyclonal
Species Human, Mouse, Rat
Applications WB, ICC/IF, IHC

NB100-1269
Western Blot: FoxC2 Antibody [NB100-1269] - Staining of nuclear HEK293 cell lysate with antibody at 2 ug/mL (A) and negative control human pancreas cell lysate with antibody at 1 ug/mL (B) (RIPA buffer 35 ug total protein per lane). Detected by chemiluminescence.Flow Cytometry: FoxC2 Antibody [NB100-1269] - Analysis of paraformaldehyde fixed HEK293 cells (blue line), permeabilized with 0.5% Triton. Primary incubation 1hr (10 ug/mL) followed by Alexa Fluor 488 secondary antibody (1 ug/mL). IgG control: Unimmunized goat IgG (black line) followed by Alexa Fluor 488 secondary antibody.

Goat Polyclonal
Species Human, Mouse
Applications WB, Flow, ICC/IF

     2 Reviews

4 Publications
NBP2-67150
Western Blot: alpha-Sarcoglycan Antibody (JA51-81) [NBP2-67150] - Analysis of alpha sarcoglycan on rat heart tissue lysates using anti-alpha sarcoglycan antibody at 1:500 dilution.Immunohistochemistry-Frozen: alpha-Sarcoglycan Antibody (JA51-81) [NBP2-67150] - Human skeletal muscle tissue. IHC-Fr image submitted by a verified customer review.

Rabbit Monoclonal
Species Human, Mouse, Rat
Applications WB, IHC, IHC-Fr

     1 Review

44110002
ELISA: FMN1 Antibody [44110002]

Rabbit Polyclonal
Species Human
Applications WB, ELISA, ICC/IF

3 Publications
NBP3-04883
Western Blot: GPHA2 Antibody [NBP3-04883] - Analysis of extracts of rat brain, using GPHA2 antibody at 1:1000 dilution. Secondary antibody: HRP Goat Anti-Rabbit IgG (H+L) at 1:10000 dilution. Lysates/proteins: 25ug per lane. Blocking buffer: 3% nonfat dry milk in TBST. Detection: ECL Enhanced Kit.

Rabbit Polyclonal
Species Human, Mouse, Rat
Applications WB


Related Genes

Botulism has been researched against:

Related PTMs

Botulism has been studied in relation to posttranslational modifications (PTMs) including:

Alternate Names

Botulism is also known as botulism, intoxication with clostridium botulinum toxin, food poisoning due to clostridium botulinum, infection due to clostridium botulinum, foodborne botulism (subtype), infant botulism (subtype), wound botulism (subtype), botulism (disorder), botulism poisoning, foodborne botulism, infection.