Infectious Salmon Anemia Virus (ISAV) is a highly infectious disease of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) that was first reported within Norwegian aquaculture facilities and represents a serious threat to Atlantic salmon aquaculture. Although epizootics of ISAV have been specifically associated with cultured salmon the pathogen infects freshwater brown trout, sea trout and rainbow trout but does not cause disease. The cause of ISA is an enveloped virus 45 to 140 nm in diameter that can be cultured in the Atlantic salmon head kidney (SHK1) cell line and produces CPE between 3 and 12 days after inoculation. Some strains also replicate in Chinook salmon embryo (CHSE 214) cells and produce CPE between 4 and 17 days post inoculation. Four major polypeptides are evident with estimated molecular sizes of 71, 53, 43 and 24 kDa. The virus possesses both hemagglutinating as well as fusion and receptor destroying activity. The hemagglutinin gene contains a highly polymorphic region (HPR), which shows sequence variation in time and space, with certain geographical areas being dominated by distinct groups of isolates. Useful in detection of ISAV haemagluttinin.
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