Blogs for April 2018

Autophagy independent roles of the core ATG proteins

Tuesday, April 24, 2018 - 11:24
ATG5 ICC Antibody

By Christina Towers, PhD.

Autophagy and ATG Proteins

Autophagy is a nutrient recycling process that cells use to fuel metabolism, particularly in response to nutrient deprivation.  It is critical for removal of damaged proteins as well as clearing certain infections.  It is a complex process that involves over 20 core autophagy genes (ATGs), most of which were originally identified in yeast but the mammalian homologs have now been well characterized.

The formation of a double membrane vesicle termed the phagophore is initiated by the ULK complex where the protein kinases ULK1 and...

Immunity’s flipside: Microglia promote Alzheimer’s pathology during inflammation

Tuesday, April 17, 2018 - 11:04
ICC Amyloid beta antibody

By Jamshed Arslan Pharm.D.

Microglia are brain's macrophages. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), microglia clear up protein aggregates called amyloid beta plaques. The connection between immune activation and AD is unclear, but a major sensor for danger-signals, called NLRP3 inflammasome, is known to be activated in the brains of patients and transgenic mice (APP/PS1) that overproduce amyloid beta.1 Activated NLRP3 inflammasome leads to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-1 beta...

Nuclear LC3: Why is it there and what is it doing?

Tuesday, April 10, 2018 - 09:17
hHpr1-p84-Thoc1 Antibody

By Christina Towers, PhD.

Cells use the complex process of autophagy to degrade and recycle cytoplasmic material.  There are over 20 proteins that have been implicated in this process and appropriately named core autophagy genes (ATGs).  Most of these were originally discovered in yeast, arguably the most famous being ATG8.  In higher eukaryotes ATG8 evolved into a family of proteins known as the GABA type A receptor-associated protein (GABARAP), which includes the Microtubule Associated Protein 1 light chain 3 (MAP1LC3), better known...

CAR-T Cell Therapy: Refining the Approach in Solid Tumors

Tuesday, April 3, 2018 - 08:30
CAR-T Cell Killing

By Jacqueline Carrico, BS, MD Candidate

Chimeric antigen receptor T-cells, better known as CAR-T cells, are being used as a novel anticancer therapy. CAR-T cells are engineered T-cells which express a modified antigen-receptor. Each chimeric antigen receptor contains 3 domains: an extracellular binding domain, a transmembrane hinge domain, and an intracellular activation or costimulatory domain. The extracellular portion is the single chain variable fragment (scFv), made up of an antibody-derived heavy chain and light chain, which ultimately recognize specific tumor antigens. The intracellular activation domain allows T-cell activation upon...

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