Blogs for July 2017

Apoptosis and Necroptosis Part II: Inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs); Key regulators of the balance between necroptosis, apoptosis and survival

Tuesday, July 25, 2017 - 09:53

In the first installment of this two-part blog post titled "Apoptosis and Necroptosis: Important factors to identify both types of programmed cell death", the mechanisms by which cell death occurs and ways to identify these pathways were discussed. In this next segment, we focus on the molecular factors regulating the choice between programmed cell death and survival signaling.

Inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) regulate cell death and survival signaling via different mechanisms. In mammals, a total of eight IAP family members have been identified1. Among these, X-linked IAP (XIAP), and cellular IAP1 and 2 (cIAP1 and cIAP2) suppress programmed cell death signaling...

Epigenetic mechanisms: new insights on the regulation of autophagy

Tuesday, July 18, 2017 - 08:17

Autophagy more than a cytosolic event

Autophagy is a cellular process whereby cytosolic components are broken down and eliminated or recycled. As a homeostatic mechanism, basal autophagic activity eliminates excess or abnormal proteins and organelles1. As an induced process, autophagy may be triggered by various external challenges, such as decreased nutrient and energy resources, and oxidative stress1.

During autophagy, several cytosolic ATG (autophagy-related) and ATG-associated proteins drive the formation of the engulfing organelle1,2. ATGs play key roles in the formation of the initial membrane vesicle or phagophore, and its subsequent elongation leading to the engulfment of cellular components. The resulting autophagosome fuses with lysosomes allowing the degradation of the sequestered content1.

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Applications Focus: Labeling with multiple secondary antibodies

Wednesday, July 12, 2017 - 09:15

Multiple fluorescent labeling with secondary antibodies for immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry is a powerful tool to examine the behavior and interactions of more than one protein in a cell or tissue sample.  However, there are a few guidelines to follow to make sure your samples are correctly labeled. Read our top five tips for a successful multiple antibody labeling experiment:

  1. Select primary antibodies raised in different host species. If you must use antibodies from the same host, use different IgG isotypes. Perform single staining of the antibodies prior to introducing multiple antibodies and secondary antibodies to the experiment, this will allow you to understand their isolated behavior and expression.

  2. When selecting secondary antibodies, make sure they come from the same host species, but have different fluorophores within a safe range of spectra to avoid overlap. It is a...

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