Blogs for January 2017

CiteAb 2017 Antibody Awards: The Lifetime Achievement Award Recipient Karen Padgett

Monday, January 30, 2017 - 12:53

The CiteAb Lifetime Achievement Award recognizes and promotes an individual who has made an outstanding contribution to the research antibody industry over a sustained period of time.

We're delighted to announce that Karen Padgett, founder of Novus Biologicals, has been recognized for her lifetime achievement in the research antibody industry. Karen is currently the VP of the Antibody Business Unit (representing both Novus and R&D Systems) and Digital Marketing at Bio-Techne. Karen has earned her place as a global leader in the research antibody industry, through her unfailing commitment, drive and positivity over the last two decades, and without ever compromising the integrity that defines her company as an industry leader.

Citeab award

Over 20 years of...

IHC vs ICC vs IF – Do you know the difference?

Monday, January 30, 2017 - 08:22

Immunohistochemistry (IHC), Immunocytochemistry (ICC) and Immunofluorescence (IF) all utilize antibodies to provide visual details about protein abundance, distribution and localization. These terms are often confusing and are sometimes mistakenly used interchangeably.  Thus, it is important to understand the fundamental differences between these various techniques. 

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IHC-Fr (on left): Cadherin‑17 was detected in perfusion fixed frozen sections of mouse intestine using rabbit anti-mouse Cadherin‑17 monoclonal antibody (Catalog # MAB8524), followed by...

The importance of using controls in immunohistochemistry

Monday, January 23, 2017 - 08:52

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a widely applied experimental method used to examine tissue antigen expression and behavior with the use of an antibody conjugated to a secondary tag for visualization.  IHC consists of a tissue preparation phase, an antibody-staining phase, and a result analysis phase - all of which may lead to skewed results if not properly performed.  One way to ensure that IHC staining results are in fact demonstrating protein behavior and not a side effect the experimental process is to use IHC controls within each experiment.  By doing so, you can feel confident in your protein integrity, experimental methods and primary and secondary antibody efficacy. 

To begin, the manner in which tissue is harvested, dissected and mounted to a microscope slide is very important.  It is vital that the tissue is collected rapidly in order for the proteins to...

The role of p53 in UV radiation DNA damage and subsequent tumorogenesis

Friday, January 20, 2017 - 13:19

p53, the protein product of the tp53 gene, is one of the most widely studied tumor suppressor proteins in cancer research.  p53 is unique in that it demonstrates both tumor suppressive and tumor progressive properties depending on whether it is functional or mutated.  The most common mutation in the p53 protein that leads to lack of tumor suppression activity is a missense mutation, however frameshift or nonsense mutations are also common.  In fact, mutant p53 has exhibited dominant negative inhibition of the wild type version of the protein, demonstrating the fact that the p53 pathway has both positive and negative feedback loops.  The p53 pathway is a large signal transduction pathway that affects DNA replication and division, apoptosis, cellular senescence and is composed of at least seven negative feedback loops and three positive feedback loops.  Although p53's major influence is in cancer, the following articles describe how a...

The application of CD31/Pecam-1 (MEC 7.46) in breast cancer research

Monday, January 16, 2017 - 15:27

CD31/PECAM-1, or platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1, is a 130-kDa glycoprotein expressed on vascular and hematopoietic cells.  Depending on the cell type, CD31/PECAM-1 expression can be largely localized to cell junctions, playing a role in cell adhesion.  Aside from its role in cellular adhesion, CD31/PECAM-1 is also a large player in a variety of signaling pathways, such as angiogenesis, cell migration, leukocyte transmigration and more.  Specifically, the association and indication of angiogenesis in breast cancer is of interest, given that extensive research shows angiogenesis is involved in breast cancer development, invasion and metastasis.  The use of a CD31/PECAM-1 primary antibody in experimental studies to quantify tumor neovascularization is a popular approach to measure microvessel density.

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The use of actin as a loading control in research on fruiting-body development and vegetative growth in Sordaria macrospora research

Monday, January 9, 2017 - 14:46

Sordaria macrospora is a filamentous fungus that serves as very useful system for scientific research due to a short life cycle and easy manipulation.  Just like any other model organism, it is important to have an effective loading control to validate experiments in the Sordaria macrospora.  In addition, the growth and morphogenesis of filamentous fungi is dependent on actin organization.  Actin is a very abundant protein across biological species and can transition between monomeric and filamentous states.  Actin has an alpha and beta isoform, both of which share nearly 98% percent sequence homology with total actin.  Actin recruits a variety of actin regulators in order to carry out many cellular functions, including cell division, cell motility, cell growth and differentiation, muscle contraction and more.  The following articles use an actin antibody as a loading control in the study of...

The C99 fragment of amyloid precursor protein (APP)

Friday, January 6, 2017 - 08:11

Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by an abundance of the beta-amyloid peptide in the brain.  When AD was first discovered, it was determined that beta-amyloid was produced as a result of the proteolysis of the amyloid precursor protein (APP).  Aside from its role in AD, the single-pass transmembrane APP has a high expression level in the brain and tends to concentrate at the synapses of neurons.  Because of this localization, it has been suggested that APP plays a role in synapse formation and potentially plasticity.  However, the exact function of APP is not known.  While there is currently no answer as to why APP accumulates in the brain of elderly individuals, current therapeutic approaches tend to focus on treatments that affect APP processing.  Over the past few years, the structure of APP has been closely studied.  From this research came the discovery that amyloid-beta production requires two cleavage steps...


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