Hypoxia is a pathological condition in which the body as a whole (generalized hypoxia) or region of the body (tissue hypoxia) is deprived of adequate oxygen supply. Hypoxia contributes significantly to the pathophysiology of major categories of human disease, including myocardial and cerebral ischemia, cancer, pulmonary hypertension, congenital heart disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor that regulates adaptive responses to a lack of oxygen in mammalian cells. HIF-1 consists of two proteins, HIF-1 alpha and HIF-1 beta. HIF-1 alpha accumulates under hypoxic conditions whereas HIF-1 beta is constitutively expressed. HIF-1 alpha is an important mediator of the hypoxic response of tumor cells and controls the up-regulation of a number of factors important for solid tumor expansion including the angiogenic factor VEGF.
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HIF and VEGF Antibody Products
At Novus Biologicals, we offer a wide range of antibodies and associated products covering every area of research. Our anti-HIF antibodies cover the entire spectrum, including HIF-1 alpha, HIF-2 alpha, HIF-1 beta and HIF-3 alpha. In addition, we provide Beclin, EGLN, Lysyl Oxidase, VHL, and VEGF antibody products for the study of Hypoxia.
Our goal is to provide the widest possible selection of hypoxia antibodies at prices that will appeal to even the most stringent of research budgets.
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, also known as VEGF, is a mitogenic growth factor specific to vascular epithelial tissue. The four VEGF isoforms, each of which binds to a specific tyrosine-kinase receptor, vary in the number of amino acids that make up the chain. These four chains each have specific VEGF antibody types, including VEGF 121, VEGF 165, VEGF 189 and VEGF 206.
VEGF has powerful permeability and mitogenic affects on the cardiovascular endothelium and is implemented in metastasis and tumor progression. VEGF antibody detects recombinant human VEGF-C protein in vitro, and is routinely used in VEGF receptor signal transduction studies, looking at the role of VEGF in physiology and disease. It is primarily used in cancer research, and has been recently used to develop new tumor therapies.
HIF-1 alpha Antibody and HIF-1 beta Antibody Products
Hypoxia Inducible Factor proteins, often referred to as HIF proteins, are essential in mammalian oxygen homeostasis, in particular oxygen regulation of various genes. HIF-1 alpha antibody and HIF-1 beta antibody assays are used to determine concentrations of HIF isotypes in tissues where these genes are present.
The HIF-1 alpha antibody is used in studies with the HIF-1 protein, which is known to be implicated in hypoxia, a significant element of many pathological diseases. HIF-1 antibodies are involved with in vitro research into myocardial and cerebral ischemias, peripheral heart disease and cancer, among others.
HIF-1 Antibody Assays
During hypoxia, the concentration of HIF-1 alpha increases within the cell, while HIF-1 beta remains stable. Thus, both HIF-1 beta antibody and HIF-1 alpha antibody dilutions may be used in immunoassays. There is no cross-over between the antibodies, meaning HIF-1 alpha proteins will not interact with HIF-2 alpha proteins, and vice versa.
HIF-2 Alpha Antibody Assays
The HIF-2 alpha antibody is of use in hypoxia studies, similarly to HIF-1 alpha antibodies. However, HIF-2 alpha differs from HIF-1 alpha in its subcellular location. HIF-1 alpha functions primarily in extravascular cells of adult humans, whereas HIF-2 alpha is predominantly located in highly vascularized tissues in humans and endothelial cells in mice.
HIF-2 alpha is potent on the tie-2 gene, which is expressed in endothelial cells and is implicated in ovarian cancer. The HIF-2 alpha antibody is of particular use in studies involving this gene.
As with HIF-1 alpha, the HIF-2 alpha antibody is used in Western blot, immunoprecipitation, Chromatin immunoprecipitation and immunohistochemical staining procedures.
With a full range of VEGF, HIF-1, HIF-2, and HIF-3 antibodies, we, at Novus Biologicals, cover every area of hypoxia research. Our aim is to provide your research faculty with the highest quality products at outstanding prices.