We at Novus Biologicals have a number of products in our antibody catalog covering the area of circadian rhythms. Disruptions of the “biological clock” mechanism are known to cause a range of disorders.
Clock (circadian locomotor output cycles kaput) was identified in 1997 as being one of the proteins encoding the PAS (PER-ARNT-SIM) transcription factor group of proteins. These proteins control the basic helix-loop helix (bHLH) mechanism, part of the circadian biofeedback loop. Clock antibodies have revealed its role in the development of cancers.
In vivo, Clock is dimerized to create the BMAL1-CLOCK complex. In mammals, this complex regulates cryptochrome genes such as Cry1 and Cry2, and Period genes such as Per1 and Per2. These genes regulate expression of Clock, thus forming a biofeedback loop. Expression of BMAL1-CLOCK genes is controlled by methylation.
Although clock is implicated in various disorders, it has rarely been reported in cancer. However, in 2009 Taniguchi et al. showed that hypermethylation could block BMAL1 completely, thus preventing the clock mechanism working. This was linked to the disrupted circadian patterns seen in various haematologic malignancies.
Now, a new study by Yale University has shown significantly less methylation in the promoter region of the clock gene in breast cancer patients. Clock has been shown to be over-expressed in breast tumor cells, particularly oestrogen and progesterone receptor-negative tumors. It was suggested genetic and epigenetic mutations of the clock gene were the cause.
We at Novus Biologicals recently launched a new rabbit polyclonal anti-CLOCK antibody. This will be used to research hitherto unexplored areas – such as the possibility that changes in light cycles can promote cancer formation in night workers.
Novus Biologicals offers many CLOCK reagents for your research needs including: