Carbonic Anhydrase IX



CAIX - One of the Best Cellular Markers of Hypoxia

The protein, carbonic anhydrase IX, belongs to the carbonic anhydrase family which consists of enzymes that rapidly convert carbon dioxide and water into the end products of carbonic acid, protons, and bicarbonate ions. These enzymes play a widespread role in cells by regulating the pH of normal tissues, and are abundantly expressed in all mammalian tissues. Due to its stability and membrane location, CAIX is one of the most hypoxically-inducible genes, and has become a reliable hypoxia histochemical marker.

Marking Hypoxia and Cancer with CAIX

Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is a member of the carbonic anhydrase family - enzymes that enable the rapid conversion of carbon dioxide and water into carbonic acid, protons, and bicarbonate ions. Carbonic anhydrases have a widespread role in regulating pH in normal tissues and are abundantly found in all mammalian tissues. CAIX itself is one of the most hypoxically-inducible genes due to its stability and membrane location.

Carbonic Anhydrase IX Roles in Tumor Growth, Survival and Invasion

Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is a membrane-associated carbonic anhydrase, strongly induced by hypoxia. CA IX is overexpressed by several cancer cells from many tumor types, and is a component of the pH regulatory system invoked by these cells to combat the deleterious effects of a high rate of glycolytic metabolism.

Carbonic Anhydrase IX and Hypoxic Response: A Path to Tumors

Carbonic Anhydrase IX (CA-IX) is an enzyme that is induced under hypoxic conditions. This enzyme is rarely present in normal cells and is responsible for controlling tumor pH. CA-IX is a transmembrane glycoprotein of the zinc metalloenzyme family. This family displays 15 isoforms in human tissues. Carbonic Anhydrase IX functions to convert carbonic acid present in hypoxic cells into a biocarbonate and a proton.


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