The hypoxia inducible factors are a family of heterodimeric transcription factors which are activated in response to lowered oxygen levels, or hypoxia. Although it may seem that HIF-1 alpha receives all the attention, other HIF antibodies, such as the HIF-2 alpha and HIF-1 beta antibody, are frequently used in clinical research as well. The three human hypoxia inducible factors HIF-1, 2 and 3 are transcriptional complexes consisting of an alpha and beta subunit. Each of the six subunits is encoded by a different gene. In normoxic conditions the subunits are non-dimeric, combining to form a functional complex when triggered by hypoxia. The alpha subunit is unique to the hypoxic response and rendered inactive in the cytosol in normoxic conditions. However, HIF-1 beta antibody research has shown the molecule, which is encoded by the ARNT gene, is also a ligand for the AhR (aryl hydrocarbon receptor), and plays an essential role in xenobiotic metabolism. Mutations in the HIF genes (or those of their regulatory enzymes) have been implicated in a number of human diseases. Complications can arise if the cellular response to hypoxia is blocked, or if a pseudo-hypoxic response arises in normoxic conditions. For example, hypoxia inhibits the mitochondrial electron transport chain, causing succinate accumulation and inhibition of the HIF prolyl-hydroxylases. Mutation of the succinate dehydrogenase genes, SDHB and SDHD, leads to succinate build-up in normoxic conditions, resulting in pseudohypoxia. HIF-1 was first identified as a transcription factor for the erythropoietin (EPO) gene in 1995. Recent HIF-1 alpha and HIF-1 beta antibody research has expanded this to include many other proteins. Novus Biologicals offer an industry leading line of highly specific HIF antibodies which has been thoroughly validated in most applications and species. Additionally, our technical support department provides excellent troubleshooting for hypoxic antibodies and are always available for live support.