The HIF family are heterodimeric, oxygen-sensitive transcription factors comprising an alpha and beta subunit which are normally dissociated in normoxic conditions. Our antibody catalog contains products targeting all the Hypoxia Inducible Factor isoforms which have been identified in mammalian cells. These include HIF-2 alpha antibody reagents targeting both the entire protein and specific epitopes.
HIF is an alpha/beta heterodimer that is activated by hypoxic conditions, binding hypoxia response elements (HREs) at target gene loci. The first HIF isoform to be discovered was HIF-1, which in 1995 was identified as a transcription factor for the EPO (erythropoietin) gene in renal fibroblasts. Further research showed the alpha subunit to be located in the cytosol, being rapidly degraded in normoxic conditions, but migrating to the nucleus during hypoxia. The beta subunit was identified as an ARNT (aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator) protein, which in its non-hypoxic state plays an essential role in xenobiotic metabolism.
The HIF-2 alpha antibody was developed from searches for binding partners for ARNT/HIF-1 beta. However, there are three coding variants for ARNT; HIF-2 binding to the ARNT2 protein. HIF-1 and HIF-2 alpha antibody knockout studies have shown that, while the two isoforms are closely related, they are expressed as distinct phenotypes with specific, non-redundant functions.
HIF-1 and HIF-2 alpha antibody research has also shown differences in tissue specificity; HIF-1 is mainly expressed at extravascular sites, while HIF-2 alpha is located in highly vascularised and endothelial tissues. However, studies by Rankin and others have shown the proteins may also be expressed in the same cell types, but with distinct transcriptional targets.
We at Novus Biologicals guarantee that the HIF-2 alpha antibody products in our antibody catalogue are specific to that antigen, and will not cross-react with HIF-1 or any other related hypoxia proteins. Additionally, our technical support department provides excellent troubleshooting for hypoxic antibodies and are available for live support.