Blogs for March 2010

Weekly Highlights of Novus Antibody Lab

Wednesday, March 31, 2010 - 12:36

The end of March has proven to be a busy time for the Novus antibody lab. Seven new antibodies were launched, numerous antibody conjugations completed, and continuous quality control testing of new antibody lots.

Two of Novus' newly released products are c-Myc antibodies: clone 9E10 and clone 9E11. c-Myc is a transcription factor that is activated in a variety of tumor cells, and plays a critical role in cellular proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and cell cycle progression. It is also a commonly used epitope tag engineered onto the N- or C-terminus of a protein of interest so that the tagged protein can be analyzed and visualized using immunochemical methods. Clone 9E11 is made to a synthetic peptide (AEEQKLISEEDL) conjugated to KLH, and is also available conjugated to...

Disruption In Circadian Rhythms Via Clock Gene Can Lead To Cancer

Tuesday, March 30, 2010 - 09:29

We at Novus Biologicals have a number of products in our antibody catalog covering the area of circadian rhythms. Disruptions of the "biological clock" mechanism are known to cause a range of disorders.

Clock (circadian locomotor output cycles kaput) was identified in 1997 as being one of the proteins encoding the PAS (PER-ARNT-SIM) transcription factor group of proteins. These proteins control the basic helix-loop helix (bHLH) mechanism, part of the circadian biofeedback loop. Clock antibodies have revealed its role in the development of cancers.

In vivo, Clock is dimerized to create the BMAL1-CLOCK complex. In mammals, this complex regulates cryptochrome genes such as Cry1 and Cry2, and Period genes such as Per1 and Per2. These genes regulate expression of Clock, thus forming a biofeedback loop. Expression of BMAL1-CLOCK genes is controlled by methylation.

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The Use Of Embryonic Stem Cell Markers In Human Disease Research

Thursday, March 25, 2010 - 12:26

We at Novus Biologicals are constantly creating new stem cell lines for a variety of bioassays – they are an essential part of our antibody catalog. Although stem cells are derived from many types of tissue, both adult and human, there is much controversy over their use.

The embryonic stem cells we supply are derived from animal, not human embryos. They are fertilized in vitro, and harvested as blastocysts, which are a hollow balls of cells that are a few days old. From these, we remove the blastocoels – the embryonic component. This is cultured in the lab.

Embryonic stem cell culture is quite inefficient, and so subculturing techniques are used. Once a cell line has become established, millions of ESCs can be yielded, often for years. This provides continuity and traceability. Once ESCs have been cultured for six months without differentiation, they are termed pluripotent and have formed an embryonic stem cell line.

Stem...

The Role Of TNF Receptor Signalling In Chronic Cardiac Failure

Wednesday, March 24, 2010 - 10:22

Tumor necrosis factor alpha has been shown to be important in the cellular response to chronic heart failure, with signaling taking place through the receptor isotypes TNFR1 and TNFR2. We at Novus Biologicals have a large number of TNF-related antibodies in our database. Many of today's studies are based on information gained by Defer et al. in 2007.

The study set out to further define the TNFR1/2 signaling pathways in rat cardiac myocytes, and used a range of antibody preparations. These included phosphorylated rabbit polyclonal antibodies (including phospho-p44/p42, phospho-MSK1 and phospho-cPLA2); monoclonal anti-cPLA2 antibodies; rabbit polyclonal actin antibody; Peroxidase-conjugated goat anti-rabbit and anti-mouse IgG, and FITC-conjugated donkey anti-mouse antibody.

Cardiac myocytes were isolated from treated and control rats, and a range of...

New Study Uncovers Role Of CD44 Receptor In Cell Survival

Tuesday, March 23, 2010 - 14:18

The CD44 family comprises a number of immunologically similar glycoproteins, which are expressed on the membranes of endothelial, mesenchymal, leukocyte and hepatocyte cells. The CD44 family has a number of functions. CD44 antibody assays have shown some that some isoforms play a role in abnormal gene splicing in human cells. Understanding this splicing mechanism is the key to many cancer research programs, hence we at Novus Biologicals have a broad range of conjugated and non-conjugated CD44 antibodies in the cancer section of our antibody catalog.

In immunobiology, CD44 is a valuable marker for memory cells, since B-cell and T-cell activation in the immune response leads to high expression of CD44. The protein is bound to hyaluronic acid in the extracellular matrix. When an antigen triggers the immune response and activates the T-helper cells, CD44 activity is...

Conjugated Antibodies to Enzymes, Fluorochromes and More

Thursday, March 18, 2010 - 15:35

Conjugated antibodies are a useful research tool in a variety of applications, ranging from Western blot to flow cytometry. We at Novus Biologicals offer many primary antibodies conjugated to enzymes such as HRP, fluorochromes such as FITC, and others including biotin and cyanine dyes.

Our antibody lab is always busy with custom antibody conjugation projects. This past week the lab conducted numerous conjugations, including a LDL Receptor antibody to biotin, a HMGB1 antibody to HRP, an Actin antibody to DyLight 488, and a CD133 antibody to DyLight 549.

When asked about the difference between conjugating an...

Adropin – A Cure For Greed?

Wednesday, March 17, 2010 - 13:46

We at Novus Biologicals have a large number of products in our antibody database which are used for metabolic research. A new Adropin antibody is a recent addition, and is used in obesity research. Although not life-threatening in its own right, obesity – as we all know - can lead to a host of more serious illnesses including heart disease, stroke and diabetes.

The role of adropin is to regulate lipid metabolism and control glucose homeostasis. It is encoded by the ENHO (Energy Homeostasis Associated) gene, and is found in the liver and brain. Studies have shown the protein levels rise in response to the intake of fatty foods, and fall during fasting. This makes adropin one of the first proteins proven to react directly to dietary fat intake.

Stem Cell Markers for Core-ESC Like Genes

Tuesday, March 16, 2010 - 12:01

Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and their corresponding marker antibodies are often used in cancer research, since cell-renewal is a feature shared by both ESCs and cancer cells. The drawback is that there is no clear evidence of a transcription program common to both cell types. However, in a study (Wong et al. 2008), it was described how comparison of human and murine ESC-like gene modules had isolated a catalog of 335 genes, which could be used as a "core ESC-like gene module" for tumor studies.

The publication described how a gene map was constructed to analytically relate the transcriptional programs of adult tissue stem cells, embryonic stem cells and cells from human cancers. The map revealed two predominant gene modules which correlated adult tissue stem cells with ESCs.

Tumors with an embryonic stem cell-activated signature are associated with higher mortality rates and faster and more frequent progression to metastasis. The...

Novel Antibody Released for the Study of Cholesterol Homeostasis

Friday, March 12, 2010 - 15:00

The Novus Product Development Team is excited to announce the launch of a new antibody target not currently available by any other antibody suppliers. The two new antibodies, a human TMEM97 antibody (NBP1-30436) and mouse TMEM97 antibody (NBP1-30437) are of particular interest as TMEM97 is implicated in several cancers, including breast, pancreatic, colorectal and ovarian cancers. In an article published in Cell Metabolism this past July, TMEM97 was also identified as one of 20 genes that are functional regulators of cellular cholesterol homeostasis. Novus' new human TMEM97 antibody has been successfully tested in both Western blot and immunocytochemistry. The mouse TMEM97 antibody is also useful for Western blot...

Activation of NF-Kappa B via Coordination of cIAP, TRAF and Kinase NIK

Thursday, March 11, 2010 - 11:56

Recent antibody studies have suggested that nuclear factor κB-inducing kinase (NIK) is inhibited through proteasome-controlled degradation regulated by TRAF/cIAP proteins. cIAP1 and cIAP2 are fairly recent apoptosis inhibitors and represent some of the newer products in our antibody catalog.

NF-kB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) is found in practically all mammalian cells and is a transcriptional factor of DNA. It affects the cellular response to a range of stimuli, including free radicals, UV radiation and stress. It plays an important role in the immune response to pathogens, but disruption of the regulatory pathways can lead to cancer and other diseases.

The TNF receptor-associated factor (TRAF) family are adaptor proteins which link various cell receptors to MAPK signaling cascades, thus activating NF-kB. TRAF proteins are important transducers for the TNF...

Mutant p53 Disrupts ASK-1 Induced MAPK Pathways

Wednesday, March 10, 2010 - 10:46

MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) antibodies are widely used in cellular research to study these processes, in both healthy and cancerous cells. For example, p38 is a pro-apoptotic factor, and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) regulates cellular longevity and stress resistance. Together they form the JNK/p38 signaling pathway, which is controlled by at least five MAPK cascades.

ASK1, also known as MAPKKK5 and MEKK5, is an apoptosis-regulating kinase which phosphorylates and stabilizes the Daxx protein. The two regulate each other via a positive feedback loop, i.e. higher Daxx levels lead to greater production of ASK1. ASK1 regulates cellular stress, for example that following activation of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα). It is necessary for the sustained activation of JNK.

It has been shown that cancer treatment with TNFα leads to ASK1 activation and accumulation of Daxx. The p53 transcription factor is associated with...

New cIAP Antibodies Pave The Way In Human Cancer Research

Tuesday, March 9, 2010 - 09:38

Apoptosis inhibitors are a well studied group of proteins that have been implicated in the formation of several types of human tumor. The most commonly studied IAP (inhibitor of apoptosis protein) is the Survivin antibody. However, our apoptosis antibody catalog at Novus Biologicals is constantly being updated to reflect the growing list of newer proteins. cIAP1 and cIAP2 antibodies are among the more recent of our anti-apoptosis products.

All IAP proteins are characterized by their ability to suppress cell death via their BIR (baculoviral IAP repeat), a novel domain consisting of around 70 amino acids. Some have an additional CARD and/or RING domains. They prevent apoptosis by inhibition of TNF and other pro-apoptosis proteins. This is done by the binding and inactivation of various caspases (cell death proteases).

The cIAP protein mediates TRAF2 ubiquitination following the receptor...

Weekly Update On Happenings In The Novus Antibody Lab

Thursday, March 4, 2010 - 12:10

The antibody lab technicians here at Novus Biologicals are constantly busy conducting purifications, conjugations and QC analysis in order to maintain our antibody catalog of over 100,000 products. Just this past week, the lab team conjugated numerous antibodies and tested several newly purified antibody lots.

A few recent examples of antibody conjugations include conjugating the rabbit polyclonal anti-PINK1 antibody (catalog number NB100-493) and the mouse monoclonal anti-HSD3B1 antibody (clone FDO66Q) (catalog number NB110-78644) to HRP. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) is the most commonly used enzyme label for antibodies. Its stability, small size and...


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