Tubulin alpha-1A chain (TUBA1A), also known as alpha-tubulin 3, tubulin B-alpha-1, B-ALPHA-1, tubulin alpha-3 chain, TUBA3, and LIS3, is a member of the tubulin family. Tubulin is the primary constituent of microtubules. Tubulin binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha-chain. The TUBA1A gene is one of three alpha tubulin genes located on chromosome 12q. TUBA1A is found on the cytoskeleton and is expressed predominantly in morphologically differentiated neurologic cells. Mutations to the TUBA1A gene cause a neurological condition called lissencephaly type 3 (LIS3). As a result of defective neuronal migration, LIS3 is characterized by microcephaly, mental retardation, and early-onset epilepsy (PMID: 22264709). The tubulin clone (YL1/2) specifically binds tyrosylated Tubulin (Tyr-Tubulin) (PMID: 6415068).